The stationary fuel cells market is projected to reach USD 14.3 billion by 2020. It had attained revenue worth USD 1.2 billion in 2013. High growth is expected in the market due to demand for power that requires natural gas. Stationary fuel cells will be charged with hydrogen manufactured from solar farms. Big box retailers like WalMart, Verizon, and other data centers adopting it early will give an impetus to the market growth. Stationary fuel cells are used to provide supplementary power in case of emergencies. They are a viable method of storing and supplying energy in critical situations. Distributed energy generation systems require modest installations and provide 24/7 load. Stationary fuel cells generate energy on-site and eliminate any dependency of energy distribution systems. The stationary fuel cells market requires government sponsorship to raise consumer awareness required for its growth. Applications of stationary fuel cells market are UPS (uninterrupted power supply), micro combined heat and power (mCHP), and emergency power systems. UPS provides auxiliary power when the primary source of electricity is cut off or unavailable. It provides protection from constant power interruptions and prevents data loss. UPS units are primarily used for this reason in data centers and computer networks. Emergency power systems include generators and other backup systems that provide energy when regular systems fail. mCHP is a distributed energy resource used in homes or small businesses. It uses less than 5 kWe and converts energy to heat and electricity. The stationary fuel cells market is dependent on technologies of SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell), MCFC (molten carbonate fuel cell), PEMFC (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell), and PAFC (phosphoric acid fuel cell). General Electric and Bloom Energy have announced the use of SOFC technology for megawatt stationary applications. Asia Pacific is the largest region for the stationary fuel cells market. Japan and South Korea have the highest sales of residential mCHP. Europe seems to be the next destination for the market with Germany being particularly ready to accept the technology. Notable players of the stationary fuel cells market include Elcore, ClearEdge Power, Delphi, BASF, and Bloom Energy. Use of fuel cells as distributed energy sources for grid stabilization will drive the market.
Table of Contents Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares and Market Forecasts Stationary Fuel Cell Market Driving Forces Platinum Catalysts Stationary Fuel Cell Market Forecasts 1 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Dynamics and Market Description 1.1 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Dynamics and Market Description 1.1.1 Stationary Fuel Cell Ownership Models 1.2 Distributed Power Generation 1.2.1 On-Site Power: 1.2.2 Utility Grid Support: 1.3 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) 1.3.1 Next Generation SOFC 1.3.2 Bloom Energy Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 1.4 ClearEdge Power Moving away from HT-PEMFC Technology 1.5 Distributed Power Generation 1.5.1 Distributed Clean and Continuous Power Generation 1.5.2 Benefits of Bloom Energy 1.5.3 Stationary Fuel Cell Technology 1.6 Industrialization Requires Sustainable, Highly Efficient Energy 1.6.1 Fuel Cell Cogeneration 1.6.2 Stationary Fuel Cells Address Global Energy Challenge 1.6.3 Petroleum 1.7 Value Of Export Market Electricity 1.8 Fuel Cell Operation 1.8.1 Fuel Cells Definition 1.8.2 Fuel Cell Insulating Nature Of The Electrolyte 1.8.3 Inconsistency Of Cell Performance 1.8.4 Fuel Cell Performance Improvements 1.8.5 Transition To Hydrogen 1.9 Fuel Environmental Issues 1.9.1 Environmental Benefits Of Using Fuel Cell Technology 1.9.2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions 1.10 Battery Description 1.11 Fuel Cell Functional Characteristics 1.12 Water In A Fuel Cell System 1.13 Power Of A Fuel Cell 1.13.1 Gas Control 1.13.2 Temperature Control 1.14 Fuel Cell Converts Chemical Energy Directly Into Electricity And Heat 1.14.1 Types Of Fuel Cells 1.15 Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology 1.15.1 Types Of Fuel Cells 1.15.2 Alkaline Fuel Cells 1.15.3 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells 1.15.4 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 1.15.5 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 1.15.6 PEM Technology 1.15.7 Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells 1.15.8 PEM Fuel Cells 1.15.9 Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell 1.15.10 Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Membranes And Catalysts 1.15.11 Common Types Of Fuel Cells 1.16 Stationary Power Applications 1.16.1 Traditional Utility Electricity Generation 1.17 On Grid And Off Grid Issues 1.17.1 Stationary Public Or Commercial Buildings Fuel Cell Market 1.17.2 Distributed Power Generation 1.18 Impact Of Deregulation 1.18.1 Excess Domestic Capacity 1.18.2 Power Failures 1.19 Fuel Cell Issues 1.19.1 Fuel Cell Workings 1.19.2 Environmental Benefits Of Fuel Cells 1.19.3 Fuel-To-Electricity Efficiency 1.20 Boilers 1.20.1 Domestic Hot Water 1.20.2 Space Heating Loops 1.20.3 Absorption Cooling Thermal Loads 1.21 Fuel Cell Reliability 1.21.1 Power Quality 1.21.2 Licensing Schedules 1.21.3 Modularity 1.22 Fuel Cell Supply Infrastructure 1.23 Laws And Regulations 1.23.1 National Hydrogen Association 1.23.2 Military Solutions 2. Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares and Market Forecasts 2.1 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Driving Forces 2.1.1 Stationary Fuel Cell Company Operating Models 2.2 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares 2.2.1 Bloom Energy (SOFC) Fuel Cell Comprised Of Many Flat Solid Ceramic Squares 2.2.2 FuelCell Energy (MCFC) 2.2.3 ClearEdge 2.2.4 ClearEdge / UTC Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFCs) 2.2.5 Ballard and IdaTech PEM 2.2.6 Acumentrics 2.3 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Forecasts 2.3.1 Stationary Fuel Cell Units Market Forecasts 2.3.2 Vision For The New Electrical Grid 2.3.3 Fuel Cell Clean Air Permitting 2.4 SOFC Fuel Cell Market Shares and Market Forecasts 2.4.1 SOFC Stationary Fuel Cell Forecasts: Unit Shipment and Installed Base Market Penetration Analysis 2.4.2 SOFC ROI Models 2.4.3 SOFC Fuel Cell Markets 2.4.4 SOFC Specialized Ceramics 2.4.5 SOFC Stationary Fuel Cell Market Description 2.4.6 Bloom Energy SOFC 2.4.7 SOFC Methanol Fuel Cells, On The Anode Side, A Catalyst Breaks Methanol 2.5 PEM Stationary Fuel Cell Forecasts 2.5.1 PEM Telecom Fuel Cell Back Up Power Systems 2.5.2 PEM Fuel Cell: High Temperature 2.5.3 PEMFC Efficiency 2.5.4 Challenges for PEMFC Systems 2.5.5 Operating Pressure 2.5.6 Long Term Operation 2.5.7 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM) Residential Market 2.6 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) 2.6.1 MCFC Molten Carbonate Uses Nickel and Stainless Steel as Core Technology 2.6.2 MCFC Stationary Fuel Cell Market Analysis 2.6.3 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Fuel Cell Technology 95% Combustion Efficiency 2.7 UTC PAFC Platinum Costs 2.7.1 PAFC 2.7.2 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Technology 2.8 Distributed Campus Environments For SOFC, PEM, MCFC, and MCFC Stationary Fuel Cells 2.8.1 Government Support for Fuel Cell Technology 2.8.2 Competition For Distributed Generation Of Electricity 2.8.3 Stationary Fuel Cell Applications 2.9 Energy Market Forecasts 2.9.1 FuelCell Energy Fuel Cell Stack Module MCFC Costs 2.9.2 FuelCell Energy Cost Breakdown 2.9.3 FuelCell Energy Fuel Cell Stack Module 2.9.4 FuelCell Energy Materials Cost Reduction via Increased Power Density 2.9.5 Fuel Cell Energy Achieving Higher MCFC Power Density 2.9.6 SOFC Unfavorable Fuel Cell Market Characteristics 2.9.7 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFCs) 2.10 PEM Membrane, Or Electrolyte 2.10.1 PEM Proton-Conducting Polymer Membrane, (The Electrolyte) 2.11 Delivered Energy Costs 2.11.1 Nanotechnology Platinum Surface Layer on Tungsten Substrate For Fuel Cell Catalyst 2.11.2 SOFC Fuel Cell Prices 2.12 PEM, SOFC, MCFC, and PAFC Stationary Fuel Cell Applications and Uses: 2.13 MCFC, SOFC, PEMFC Projected Cost Long Term 2.14 Stationary Fuel Cells Strengths and Weaknesses 2.15 Fuel Cell Return On Investment Analysis 2.15.1 Addressable Market 2.16 Stationary Fuel Cell Prices 2.16.1 Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Prices 2.16.2 MCFC Stationary Fuel Cell Prices 2.17 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Regional Analysis 2.17.1 Stationary Fuel Cells U.S. 2.17.2 Fuel Cells California 2.17.3 Regional Stationary Fuel Cell Competition 2.17.4 CPUC Recently Approved 6 Utility Owned Fuel Cell Projects 2.17.5 Stationary Fuel Cell Installations in California 2.17.6 California Fuel Cell Installations 2.17.7 Campus Fuel Cell Food Processing Agricultural Applications / Gills Onions Stationary Fuel Cells 2.17.8 Oxnard DFC Installations 2.17.9 Europe and Japan 2.17.10 Korea 2.17.11 European Photovoltaic Industry Association and Greenpeace Global Investments In Solar Photovoltaic Projects 2.17.12 German Stationary Fuel Cells 2.17.13 Japanese Sales Prospects 2.17.14 New Sunshine Project (Japan) 2.17.15 Fuel Cell Development in Japan 2.17.16 Fuel Cell Cogeneration in Japan 2.17.17 Softbank / Bloom: Bloom Energy Japan 2.17.18 Japanese Government Subsidies 2.17.19 Fuel Cell Cogeneration In Japan 2.17.20 Establishing Codes And Standards Are Very Important For Advancing Fuel Cell Systems In Japan 2.17.21 FuelCell Energy Geographic Market Participation 2.17.22 FuelCell Energy within Korea 2.17.23 FuelCell Energy Korean Market Partner POSCO Energy 2.17.24 FuelCell Energy Within the United States 2.17.25 FuelCell Energy Bridgeport Project 2.17.26 FuelCell Energy in Canada 2.17.27 FuelCell Energy in Europe 2.17.28 FuelCell Energy European Market Developments 3 Stationary Fuel Cell Product Description 3.1 Fuel Cells 3.2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) 3.2.1 Next Generation SOFC 3.3 Bloom Energy Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 3.3.1 Bloom s Energy SOFC Specifications 3.3.2 Bloom Energy Server Architecture 3.3.3 Bloom Energy E-Bay Data Center Installation 3.4 Ceramic Fuel Cells SOFC 3.4.1 Ceramic Fuel Cells BlueGen 3.4.2 Ceramic Fuel Cells Gennex Fuel Cell Module 3.4.3 Ceramic Fuel Cells Engineered Mixed Oxide Powders 3.5 LG 3.5.1 LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cells SOFC Technology 3.6 SKKG Cultural and Historical Foundation / Hexis SOFC 3.7 Viessmann Group 3.8 The Ceres Fuel Cell 3.8.1 Ceres Power Core Technology 3.9 Acumentrics 3.9.1 Acumentrics Fuel Cell Systems Work 3.9.2 The Fuel Reformer 3.9.3 Acumentrics Small Tubes 3.9.4 Acumentrics Specialized Ceramics 3.9.5 Acumentrics Fuel Cell Technologies Ltd Trusted Power Innovations 3.10 Samsung 3.11 Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 3.11.1 Delphi / Independent Energy Partners (IEP) 3.11.2 Delphi SOFC 3.11.3 Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit 3.12 LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 3.13 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Stationary Fuel Cells 3.14 ClearEdge Proton Exchange Membrane PEM Fuel Cells 3.14.1 ClearEdge PureCell. Model 5 System 3.14.2 ClearEdge PureCell. Model 400 System 3.14.3 ClearEdge PureCell. Model 400 System 3.14.4 ClearEdge fuel Cell Fleet Surpasses 1 Million Hours Of Operation 3.14.5 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFCs) 3.14.6 ClearEdge UTC Product : The PureCell Model 400 Power Solution Features : 3.14.7 ClearEdge UTC PureComfort. Solutions 3.14.8 ClearEdge UTC PureComfort. Power Solutions Save Energy 3.14.9 ClearEdge UTC CO2 Emissions Reduction 3.14.10 ClearEdge UTC PureComfort. Power Solutions 3.15 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Power Plants 3.16 FuelCell Energy 3.16.1 FuelCell Energy Power Plants Operating On Natural Gas 3.16.2 FuelCell Energy DFC Power Plant Benefits: 3.16.3 FuelCell Energy DFC Power Plant Benefits: 3.16.4 FuelCell Energy Cost Breakdown 3.16.5 FuelCell Energy Fuel Cell Stack Module 3.16.6 FuelCell Energy Materials Cost Reduction via Increased Power Density 3.16.7 FuelCell Energy Balance-of-Plant Cost Reduction With Volume Production 3.16.8 FuelCell Energy Conditioning, Installation, and Commissioning 3.16.9 FuelCell Energy to Supply 1.4 MW Power Plant to a California Utility 3.16.10 FuelCell Energy Adding Power Generating Capacity At The Point Of Use Avoids Or Reduces Investment In The Transmission And Distribution System 3.16.11 FuelCell Energy DFC1500 3.16.12 FuelCell Energy Fuel Cells Within South Korean Renewable Portfolio 3.16.13 Enbridge and FuelCell Energy Partner 3.16.14 FuelCell Energy Power Plants 3.17 Proton Exchange Membrane PEM Stationary Fuel Cells 3.18 Ballard 3.18.1 Ballard and IdaTech's PEM 3.18.2 Ballard 3.18.3 Ballard / IdaTech 3.18.4 Ballard Power Systems Fuel Cell Stack to Taiwan-Based M-Field Energy Ltd. 4 Stationary Fuel Cell Technology 4.1 Fuel Cell Emissions Profile 4.1.1 Direct FuelCell Technology 4.2 Verizon Launches Massive Green Energy Project to Power 19 Company Facilities Across the Country 4.3 Fuel Cells Offer An Economically Compelling Balance Of Attributes 4.4 Stationary Fuel Cell Government Regulation 4.5 Fuel Cell Type Of Electrolyte Used 4.5.1 PEM Fuel Cells 4.5.2 Fuel Cell Stacks 4.6 IdaTech Fuel Processing Technology 4.7 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC) 4.7.1 PAFC Platinum-Based Catalyst 4.8 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC) 4.8.1 FuelCell Energy Degradation of the Electrolyte Support 4.8.2 MCFC Stack Cost Analysis 4.8.3Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Results 4.9 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) 4.9.1 SOFC Fuel Cell/Turbine Hybrids 4.9.2 Acumetrics Tubular SOFC, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology 4.1.3 Chip-Scale Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Arrays 4.10 Fuel Reformer 4.10.1 Specialized Ceramics 4.10.2 Ceramic Fuel Cells 4.11 Fuel Cell Description 4.12 Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC) 4.13 Nanotechnology Enables Overcoming Stationary Fuel Cell Cost Barriers 4.13.1 DMFC Micro And Portable Fuel Cells Components and Labor Costs 4.13.2 SOFC Fuel Cells Components and Labor Costs: 4.13.3 MCFC Fuel Cells Components and Labor Costs: 4.13.4 PAFC Fuel Cells Components and Labor Costs: 4.14 Solar Energy Complements Fuel Cell Technology 4.15 DMFC Fuel Cell Already Viable Market 4.15.1 DMFC Micro And Portable Fuel Cells Components and Labor Costs 4.15.2 Polymer-Electrolyte Membrane PEM 4.15.3 PEM Nano Metals And Alloys 4.15.4 PEM 4.16 Platinum Catalyst 4.16.1 Nanotechnology Platinum Surface Layer on Tungsten Substrate For Fuel Cell Catalyst 4.16 2 Nanotechnology Platinum Catalyst Mid Size Stationary Fuel Cells 4.16.2 Water Electrolysis Technology 4.17 Fuel Cell Nickel Borate Catalyst 4.17.1 Fuel Cell High Cost Products 4.17.2 Development of hydrogen Technologies Critical For The Growth Of The Fuel Cell Industry 4.17.3 PEM and SOFC For Home Units 4.18 PAFC and Stationary fuel cells 4.19 For MCFC: 4.20 For PAFC: 4.21 Fuel Cell Components 4.21.1 Fuel Processor (Reformer) 4.22 Fuel Cell Stack 4.23 Power Conditioner 4.24 Nano Composite Membranes 4.25 Pall Filtering of Hydrogen 4.26 IdaTech 5 Stationary Fuel Cell Company Profiles 5.1 Stationary Fuel Cell Acquisitions 5.1.1 2013: ClearEdge Power Acquires UTC Power 5.1.2 BASF Exits High-Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Business 5.1.3 GE 5.1.4 Air Liquide Invests in Plug Power 5.1.5 Ballard Buys IdaTech 5.1.6 Viessmann Group Acquires 50 Percent Share in Hexis AG 5.1.7 Acumentrics Acquired Fuel Cell Technologies Ltd 5.1.8 FuelCell Energy / Versa Power Systems Acquisition 5.1.9 Rolls Royce Sells Its Stationary Fuel Cell Operations Interests to LG 5.1.10 Other Transactions and Consolidation of Stationary Fuel Cell Market 5.2 Acumentrics 5.2.1 Acumentrics Technologies Ltd Rugged UPS 5.2.2 Acumentrics UPS Products 5.2.3 Acumentrics / Fuel Cell Technologies Ltd Trusted Power Innovations 5.2.4 Acumentrics / Fuel Cell Technologies 5.3 Advent Technologies 5.3.1 Advent Technologies Investors 5.3.2 Advent Technologies Target Markets For HT-PEMFC 5.3.3 Advent Target Markets 5.4 AFC Energy 5.5 Altergy 5.5.1 Altergy Mass Production And Commercial Deployment Of Rugged, Low Cost Fuel Cells 5.5.2 Altergy Global Leader In Telecom/Critical Infrastructure 5.6 Ansaldo Fuel Cells 5.7 Ballard Power Systems 5.7.1 Ballard Power Systems / IdaTech LLC / ACME Group (Gurgaon, Haryana) 5.7.2 Ballard Expanded Single Fuel Cell 5.7.3 Ballard Hydrogen 5.7.4 Ballard Buys IdaTech 5.7.5 IdaTech acquires Plug Power s LPG Off-Grid, Backup Power Stationary Product Lines 5.7.6 IdaTech Applications 5.7.7 IdaTech Wireline Communications Networks 5.7.8 Ballard Third Quarter 2013 Revenue Ballard Third Quarter 2013 Highlights 5.8 BASF 5.9 Blasch Precision Ceramics 5.10 Bloom Energy 5.10.1 Bloom Energy Fuel Cells Customer Adobe 5.10.2 Bloom Energy / University Of Arizona NASA Mars Space Program 5.10.3 SoftBank & Bloom Energy Form Joint Venture 5.11 ClearEdge Power / UTC Power 5.11.1 ClearEdge / United Technologies 5.12 Ceramic Fuel Cells 5.13 Delphi 5.13.1 Delphi Automotive LLP Revenue 5.13.2 Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit 5.14 Doosan Corporation 5.15 Elcore 5.16 Electro Power Systems 5.17 Enbridge 5.18 FuelCell Energy 5.18.1 FuelCell Energy Production Capacity 5.18.2 FuelCell Energy POSCO 121.8 MW Order 5.18.3 FuelCell Energy / Versa 5.18.4 FuelCell Energy Leading Integrated Fuel Cell Company 5.18.5 FuelCell Energy Revenue 2012, 2013 5.18.6 FuelCell Energy / Versa Power Systems, Inc. Acquisition 5.18.7 FuelCell Energy Market Activity 5.18.8 Stationary Fuel Cell ROI 5.18.9 FuelCell Energy Versa Power Systems Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development: 5.18.10 FuelCell Energy / Versa Systems Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 5.18.11 FuelCell Energy DFC 3000 Cost Savings 5.18.12 FuelCell Energy Production and Delivery Capabilities 5.18.13 FuelCell Energy Food & Beverage Processing 5.18.14 FuelCell Energy Strategic Alliances and Market Development Agreements 5.18.15 FuelCell Energy Service Company Partners 5.18.16 FuelCell Energy Business Strategy 5.19 Fuji Electric 5.20 GE 5.20.1 GE Unmanned Aircraft 5.20.2 http://www.gepower.com/global/images/spacer.gifGE HPGS 5.21 HydroGen LLC 5.22 Hydrogenics 5.22.1 Hydrogenics Revenue 5.23 ITN Lithium Technology 5.23.1 ITN s Lithium EC sub-Division Focused On Development And Commercialization of EC 5.23.2 ITN s SSLB Division Thin-Film Battery Technology 5.23.3 ITN Lithium Air Battery 5.23.4 ITN Fuel Cell 5.23.5 ITN Thin-film Deposition Systems 5.23.6 ITN Real Time Process Control 5.23.7 ITN Plasmonics 5.24 LG Electronics 5.24.1 LG Business Divisions and Main Products 5.24.2 LG Telemonitoring Smartcare System 5.24.3 Rolls Royce Sells Its Stationary Fuel Cell Operations Interests to LG 5.25 Nuvera 5.26 Plug Power 5.26.1 Plug Power Revenue by Quarters 5.27 POSCO Power 5.28 Rolls Royce 5.29 SafeHydrogen LLC 5.30 Samsung Everland 5.30.1 Samsung 5.30.2 Samsung Finds Talent And Adapts Technology To Create Products 5.30.3 Samsung Adapts to Change, Samsung Embraces Integrity 5.30.4 Samsung Telecom Equipment Group 5.30.5 Samsung Electronics Q2 2013 Revenue 5.30.6 Samsung Memory Over Logic 5.31 Serenergy 5.32 Siemens AG 5.33 SoftBank 5.34 Southern California Edison 5.35 Truma
List of Tables and Figures Table ES-1 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Driving Forces Table ES-2 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Growth Drivers Worldwide Table ES-3 Worldwide Stationary Fuel Cell Market Campus Segments Figure ES-4 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares, Dollars, 2013 Figure ES-5 Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment Market Forecasts, Dollars, Worldwide, 2014-2020 Figure 1-1 Traditional Power Distribution Network vs. Fuel Cell Solution Table 1-2 Methods Of Producing Energy Table 1-3 Key Aspects Of Fuel Cell Stack Costs Figure 1-4 Fuel Cell Operation Table 1-5 Fuel Cell Operation Figure 1-6 Stationary Fuel Cell Distributed Power Generation Figure 1-7 Conventional Power System with Central Generation Figure 1-8 Utility Power Systems with Distributed 1MW Fuel Cell System Table 1-9 Fuel Cell Characteristics Table 1-10 Fuel Cell Description Table 1-11 Fuel Cell Categories Table 1-12 Fuel Cell Performance Improvements Table 1-13 Environmental Concerns Relating To Energy Table 1-14 Environmental Benefits Of Using Fuel Cell Technology Table 1-15 Fuel Cell Advantages Compared To Internal Combustion Engine Table 1-16 Low-carbon production systems Table 1-17 Fuel Cell Functional Characteristics Table 1-18 Characteristics Of Water In Fuel Cells Figure 1-19 Stationary Fuel Cell Growth Opportunities Table 1-20 Types Of Fuel Cells Table 1-21 Classes Of Fuel Cells Table 1-22 Fuel Cell Applications Table 1-23 Types Of Fuel Cells Table 1-24 Classes Of Fuel Cells Table 1-25 Fuel Cell Applications Table 1-26 Alkaline Fuel Cell Features Table 1-27 Phosphoric acid fuel cells applications Table 1-28 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Features Table 1-29 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells Table 1-30 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Features Table 1-31 Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Functions Figure 1-32 Stationary Fuel Cell Company Operating Models Table 1-33 Fuel Cell Issues Table 1-34 Fuel Cell System Table 1-35 Operation of a Fuel Cell. Table 1-36 Fuel Cell System Relative Efficiencies Table 1-37 Fuel Cell Reliability Research And Development Issues Table 2-1 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Driving Forces Table 2-2 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Growth Drivers Worldwide Table 2-3 Worldwide Stationary Fuel Cell Market Campus Segments Figure 2-4 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares, Dollars, 2013 Table 2-5 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares, Dollars, 2013 Figure 2-6 Bloom Energy Server Figure 2-7 FuelCell Energy Electrochemical Device Figure 2-8 Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment Market Forecasts, Dollars, orldwide, 2014-2020 Table 2-9 Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment Market Forecasts Dollars, Worldwide, 2014-2020 Figure 2-10 Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment Market Forecasts, Units, Worldwide, 2014-2020 Table 2-11 Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment Market Forecasts Units, Worldwide, 2014-2020 Table 2-12 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Forces Figure 2-13 SOFC Market Shares, Dollars, Worldwide, 2013 Table 2-14 SOFC Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares, Dollars, Worldwide, 2013 Figure 2-15 Stationary SOFC Fuel Cell Market Forecasts, Dollars, Worldwide, 2014-2020 Figure 2-16 Stationary Fuel Cell SOFC Market Forecasts, Number Shipped, Worldwide, 2014-2020 Table 2-17 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment Market Forecasts, Units and Dollars, Worldwide, 2014-2020 Table 2-18 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment Installed Base and Market Penetration Forecasts Units, Worldwide, 2014-2020 Figure 2-19 Reducing Hydrogen Crossover Using Nanotechnology Table 2-20 Ceramic Fuel Cells Advantages Figure 2-21 Stationary Fuel Cell PEM, Market Forecasts, Dollars, Worldwide, 2014-2020 Table 2-22 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell PEM Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment Market Forecasts, Units and Dollars, Worldwide, 2014-2020 Figure 2-23 Stationary Fuel Cell Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Market Forecasts, Units, Worldwide, 2014-2020 Table 2-24 PEMFC Efficiency Table 2-25 Stationary Fuel Cell Long-Term Operation Table 2-26 MCFC Technology Development Functions Table 2-27 MCFC Near-zero NOX, SOX and low CO2 emissions Figure 2-28 FuelCell Energy 2.4 MW Fuel Cell Power Plant Inchon, South Korea Table 2-29 MCFC Stationary Fuel Cell Technology Table 2-30 Stationary Fuel Cell Distributed Campus Environments Target Markets Worldwide, 2013 Table 2-31 Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment SOFC, PEM, MCFC, and MCFC Market Forecasts, Dollars, Worldwide, 2014-2020 Table 2-32 Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment SOFC, PEM, MCFC, and MCFC Market Forecasts, Units, Worldwide, 2014-2020 Figure 2-33 Stationary Fuel Cell Applications Figure 2-34 Global Demand For Electric Power Figure 2-35 Cost of Electricity Grid and Stationary Fuel Cell Table 2-36 Complete Fuel Cell Power Plant Table 2-37 Opportunity for PAFC Cost Reductions Opportunity Area Table 2-38 PAFC Stack Costs Figure 2-39 Fuel Cell Image Table 2-40 PEM Stack Costs Figure 2-42 Delivered Energy Costs Table 2-43 Stationary Fuel Cell Markets Table 2-45 Stationary Fuel Cells Strengths and Weaknesses Table 2-46 Cost Comparison of Available Technologies for a 5kW Plant Table 2-47 Unsubsidzed Levelized Cost of Energy Table 2-48 MCFC Stack Costs Table 2-49 Stationary Fuel Cell Regional Market Segments, Dollars, 2013 Table 2-50 Stationary Fuel Cell Regional Market Segments, 2013 Figure 2-51 Stationary Fuel Cell Installations in California Figure 2-52 Efficient Pipeline Pressure Reduction Table 2-53 Types Of Campus Fuel Cell Power Plants Figure 2-54 FuelCell Energy 600 KW DFC, Gills Onions Oxnard, CA Figure 2-55 Korea s Energy Mix 2030 Figure 2-57 Korea s Energy Application Sectors Figure 2-58 Korean NRE New and Renewable Energy Figure 2-59 Korean Research & Development in NRE Figure 2-60 Korean Local Plan for Promoting NRE Figure 2-61 FuelCell Energy Environmental Tangible Benefits Figure 2-62 Hybrid Electric Vehicles Costs Figure 2-63 US Energy Costs Figure 2-64 Hydrogen Cost From On Site Steam Figure 2-65 German Bonus for Electricity Produced Through CHP Units Table 2-66 Japanese Sales Prospects Figure 2-67 FuelCell Energy Regional Positioning Figure 2-68 FuelCell Energy Regional Business Activity Figure 3-1 Bloom ES-5700 Fuel Cell Figure 3-2 Bloom s Energy SOFC Specifications Table 3-3 Bloom Energy SOCF Fuel Cell Specifications Figure 3-4 Bloom Energy Server Table 3-5 Bloom Performance Gain From Modular Architecture Figure 3-6 Bloom Energy Data Center Installation Figure 3-7 Ceramic Fuel Cells BlueGen Products Figure 3-8 Ceramic Fuel Cells BlueGen Installation Figure 3-9 Ceramic Fuel Cells BlueGen Efficiency Comparison Figure 3-10 LG 1 MW SOFC System Figure 3-11 LG Fuel Cell Power Generation Used to Power Electronics and Excess Sold to Grid Figure 3-12 LG Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells SOFC Figure 3-13 LG Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells SOFC 60 Cell Technology Figure 3-14 LG Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells SOFC Figure 3-15 Ceres Power SOFC Fuel Cell Figure 3-16 Acumentrics Fuel Cell Systems Functions Figure 3-17 Acumentrics Small Tubes Table 3-18 Acumentrics Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Functions Figure 3-19 Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Table 3-20 Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Benefits Table 3-21 Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Typical Applications Figure 3-22 Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Transportation Application Figure 3-23 LG Fuel Cell Process Table 3-24 LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Features Figure 3-25 ClearEdge PureCell. Model 5 System Generates 5 kW Figure 3-26 PureCell. Model 5 System Specifications Table 3-27 ClearEdge The Model 5 System Benefits Table 3-28 ClearEdge The Model 5 System Functions Table 3-29 ClearEdge The Model 5 system Functions Figure 3-30 ClearEdge PureCell. Model 400 System Figure 3-31 ClearEdge PureCell. Model 400 System Characteristics Figure 3-32 UTC Power Fuel Cells Also Qualify For LEED. (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Points. Table 3-33 UTC PureCell system Features Figure 3-34 UTC Fuel cell Supplier To NASA For Space Missions For Over 40 Years Table 3-35 UTC Performance Characteristics POWER Figure 3-36 ClearEdge UTC PureCell Solution Emissions Table 3-37 ClearEdge UTC Stationary Fuel Cell Energy Efficiency Positioning Table 3-38 ClearEdge UTC Microturbine Chiller/Heater and System Level Functions Table 3-39 ClearEdge UTC stationary Fuel cell Benefits : Table 3-40 ClearEdge UTC Stationary Fuel Cell Emissions Benefits Table 3-41 ClearEdge UTC Stationary Fuel Cell Emissions CO2 Emissions Reduction Calculations Figure 3-42 ClearEdge UTC Pollutant Emissions Comparisons Table 3-43 ClearEdge UTC PureComfort. Power Solutions Table 3-44 FuelCell Energy Power Plant Advantages: Table 3-45 FuelCell Energy Product Advantages Table 3-46 FuelCell Energy Fuel Cell Power Plant Models Table 3-47 FuelCell Energy DFC Power Plant Benefits: Figure 3-48 Fuel Cell Electrochemical Device Figure 3-49 Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) Power Plants Offer The Highest Efficiency Which Is Key To Customer Value Figure 3-50 FuelCell Energy 1 MW DFC California State University - Northridge Table 3-51 FuelCell Energy Cost Reduction Opportunities for the DFC 1500 Power Plant Operating On Pipeline-Quality Natural Gas Figure 3-52 Enbridge and FuelCell Energy Figure 3-53 Direct Fuel Cell Power Plant Table 3-54 Ballard Power Systems Comprehensive Portfolio Of Fuel Cell Products Table 3-55 Ballard Power Systems Fuel Cell Products Figure 3-56 Ballard Power Systems Cleargen Mulit-Megawatt Fuel Cell System Figure 3-57 IdaTech Fuel Cell System Table 3-58 Ballard / IdaTech ElectraGen ME System Functions Table 3-59 Ballard / IdaTech ElectraGen ME System Functions Table 4-1 Favorable Emissions Profile Of DFC Power Plants Table 4-2 DFC Technology Advantages Table 4-3 Fuel Cell Types Of Electrical Efficiency, Operating Temperature, Expected Capacity Range, And Byproduct Heat Table 4-4 Fuel Cell Technologies Table 4-5 Fuel Cells By Fuel Figure 4-6 Fuel Cells Offer An Economically Compelling Balance Of Attributes Figure 4-7 Efficiency Differences Among Fuel Cell Technologies Table 4-8 Stationary Fuel Cell Products Regulation Table 4-9 Fuel cell Types By T Electrolyte Figure 4-10 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells Figure 4-11 PEM Fuel Cell Operation Figure 4-12 Fuel Cell Stacks Figure 4-13 Fuel Cell Stack Components Table 4-14 Opportunity for PAFC Cost Reductions Opportunity Area Table 4-15 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell R&D areas to be addressed Figure 4-16 MCFC Cost Components of Electricity vs. Fuel Cell Capital Cost Figure 4-17 Siemens Westinghouse's 250-Kilowatt Atmospheric Pressure Combined Heat And Power Fuel Cell System Figure 3-18 Chip-Scale Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Arrays Figure 3-19 Use of Vanadium Oxide Anode Allows Energy Storage In Quasi-2d Oxide Fuel Cell Membranes Table 4-20 Ceramic Fuel Cells Advantages Figure 4-21 Bloom Energy Fuel Cell Description Figure 4-22 Bloom Energy Fuel Cell Description (2) Figure 4-23 Bloom Energy Fuel Cell Description (3) Figure 4-24 Bloom Energy Fuel Cell Description Figure 4-25 Bloom Energy Fuel Cell Description (5) Figure 4-26 Fuel Cell Flow Plates Figure -4-27 Home Hydrogen Refueler Figure 4-28 Fuel Cell Components Figure4-29 How A Fuel Cell Works Figure4-30 Stationary Fuel Cell Steam Reformer Figure 4-31 Hydrogen Reformer Components Figure 4-32 1 Fuel Processor (Reformer), 2 Fuel Cell Stack, 3 Power Conditioner Figure 4-33 Reducing Hydrogen Crossover Using Nanotechnology Figure 4-34 Comparison of the Performance of Nanocomposite Membranes Figure 4-35 Catalytic Reformer and Refinery Hydrogen System Table 5-1 Acumentrics Technologies Ltd Rugged UPS Table 5-2 Acumentrics UPS Products Target Markets Table 5-3 Acumentrics UPS Customers Table 5-4 Acumentrics Rugged-UPS Designs Figure 5-5 Acumentrics Fuel Cell Power Generator Table 5-6 Acumentrics Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Functions Figure 5-7 Acumentrics / Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Fuel Cell Test Station QA Testing Area Figure 5-8 Altergy Mass Production Of Rugged, Low Cost Fuel Cells Figure 5-9 Altergy Fuel Cells Figure 5-10 Altergy Freedom PowerFuel Cell, Generator, Unconditioned Batteries and Conditioned Batteries Comparison TCO Table 5-11 Altergy s Market Leading Freedom Power Systems Figure 5-12 Ballard. Fuel Cell Table 5-13 Ballard Hydrogen Systems Table 5-14 Bloom Energy Customers Figure 5-15 Bloom Energy Customers Table 5-16 Elcore Stationary Fuel Cell Technical Details Figure 5-17 Enbridge Overview Table 5-18 Enbridge Statistics Figure 5-19 Enbridge Hybrid Fuel Cell Figure 5-20 FuelCell Energy Positioning Table 5-21 FuelCell Energy Positioning Figure 5-22 Fuel Cell Energy Revenue Figure 5-23 FuelCell Quarterly Financial Highlights Table 5-24 FuelCell Energy Leading Customers Figure 5-25 Fuel Cell Energy Product Cost per kW Table 5-26 FuelCell Energy Key Installations Figure 5-27 Versa Systems Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Figure 5-28 Versa Systems Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology Figure 5-29 FuelCell Energy DFC 3000 Cost Savings Figure 5-30 FuelCell Energy Production Capabilities Table 5-31 FuelCell Energy Active Project Pipelines Figure 5-32 FuelCell Energy Tangible Environmental Benefits Figure 5-33 FuelCell Energy Efficiency Differences Between Technologies Table 5-34 FuelCell Energy Markets Table 5-35 FuelCell Energy Global Relationships Table 5-36 FuelCell Energy Partner Descriptions Figure 5-37 FuelCell Energy Installation Strategic Execution Figure 5-38 FuelCell Energy Installation Business Activity Figure 5-39 FuelCell Energy Installed Base Table 5-40 ITN Technologies Figure 5-41 ITN Thin Film Battery Technology Figure 5-42 ITN Battery Figure 5-43 ITN Thin-Film Deposition Systems Figure 5-44 ITN s Thin-Film Deposition Systems Table 5-45 ITN Thin-Film Deposition Systems Products and Services Offered Table 5-46 ITN Thin-Film Deposition Systems Figure 5-47 ITNIYN Fuel Cells Figure 5-48 LG Corp Holding Structure Figure 5-49 LG Global Sales Figure 5-50 LG Business Divisions and Main Products Table 5-51 LG Product Offerings Figure 5-52 LG Global Network Figure 5-53 LG Faster and Smarter Technology Innovation Figure 5-54 LG Global Marketing
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