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Refinery Catalysts: Market Strategies, Analysis, and Opportunities

Published: Apr 3, 2017 | Pages: 818 | Publisher: WinterGreen Research | Industry: Chemicals | Report Format: Electronic (PDF)

The refinery catalyst market is thus boosted by the fact that the efficient use of catalysts can help the manufacturers' better address the increasing energy demand. Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the conversion process used in petroleum refineries.  It is widely used to convert the high-boiling, high-molecular weight hydrocarbon fractions of petroleum crude oils to more valuable gasoline, olefinic gases and other products.  

Cracking of petroleum hydrocarbons is done by catalytic cracking because it produces more gasoline with a higher-octane rating. Byproduct gases are more olefinic.   These are more valuable than those produced by thermal cracking.

The feedstock to an FCC is that portion of the crude oil that has an initial boiling point of 340 °C or higher at atmospheric pressure.  The average molecular weight ranges from about 200 to 600 or higher.  This portion of crude oil is often referred to as heavy gas oil.  The FCC process vaporizes and breaks the long-chain molecules of the high-boiling hydrocarbon liquids into much shorter molecules by contacting the feedstock, at high temperature and moderate pressure, with a fluidized powdered catalyst.

Hydroprocessing faces significant challenges as crude feeds get heavier; there will be more sulphur and nitrogen to extract; more aromatics to saturate; more metals to remove; and more coke to deal with.  Refiners have ageing facilities, which may not be designed and optimized to meet new challenges.  As more capital investment is needed, costs for refining fossil fuels will rise, stimulating markets for renewable energy, making them more competitive with fossil fuels.  

The cost of hydrocracking catalysts varies because of composition differences.  The catalysts can be alumina with base metals or contain added crystalline zeolites.  High quality ultra-stable type Y molecular sieve zeolites are used in this service.  Nickel-moly or nickel-tungsten are the active metals frequently used.

FCC additives are used with catalysts to meet specific unit objectives.  Higher gasoline octane, lower gasoline sulfur, lower sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides emissions, lower carbon monoxide levels, improve fluidization, make more propylene and/or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and improve bottoms cracking are FCC objectives.

According to Susan Eustis, principal author of the study, “Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) petroleum refining products overcome limiting factors affecting refinery capacity and operating flexibility to deliver value and performance.  Catalysts are a crucial component in the processing of highly valued petrochemicals, gasoline, diesel and other fuels.”

The market for refinery catalysts in the oil refining sector at $4,967 million in 2016 is expected to be worth $6,490 million by 2023, growing at 3.8% on average between 2017 and 2023.  There are 500 FCC units being operated globally, each of which requires a constant supply of FCC catalysts.  There are 3,000 HPC units being operated globally, or a capacity of approximately 44 million barrels per day, each of which typically requires replacement HPC catalysts once every one to four years.

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Companies Profiled

Market Leaders

•	Albemarle
•	BASF
•	Haldor Topsoe
•	Honeywell / UOP
•	Advanced Refining Technologies (ART)
•	WR Grace
•	Clariant AG / Süd-Chemie AG
•	Shell CRI
•	IFP Energies nouvelles Group Company / Axens
•	Sinopec China Petrochemical Corporation
•	Shell / Criterion

Market Participants

•	Air Products
•	Advanced Energy Materials LLC
•	Chevron
•	Clean Diesel Technologies
•	Clean Diesel Technologies / Catalytic Solutions
•	Dow
•	Evonik Industries
•	ExxonMobil Catalysts and Licensing LLC,
•	Headwaters Technology Innovation (HTI)
•	IFP Energies Nouvelles Group Company / Axens / Eurecat UNICAT Catalyst Technologies
•	Indian Oil Corporation
•	Johnson Matthey
•	KBR Hydroprocessing
•	Nanostellar
•	Petrobras Partnership with Albemarle
•	Quantiam Technologies Inc.
•	Rive Technology and Grace Davison
•	Shell
•	Shell / Sekiyu
•	Shoaibi Group / General Technology & Systems Company Ltd (GENTAS)
•	UNICAT Catalyst Technologies
•	Zeochem
•	Zeolyst
•	Selected Refinery Catalyst Companies
•	Emerging Catalyst Companies
•	FCC Catalyst & Additive Suppliers
•	Government Agencies and Other Organizations

Key Topics

•	Catalysts
•	Petroleum Process
•	Chemical Process
•	Fluid Catalytic Cracking FCC Catalysts
•	Hydroprocessing Catalysts
•	Metal Refinery Catalys
•	Nanotechnology
•	Related Energy
•	Depleting Crude Oil Reserves
•	Process Catalysts
•	Refining Catalysts
•	Refining Industry
•	Refining Capacity
•	Maximizing Diesel Production
•	Hydrocracking
•	Hydrotreating
•	Hydrotreating Process
•	Distillate Hydrotreating
•	Lithium Carbonate
•	Lithium Chemicals
•	Lithium Market Opportunity
•	Rare Earth Minerals
 Table of Content

REFINERY CATALYSTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 41
Refinery Catalysts Market Driving Forces 41
Change Is the Only Constant 43
Shift In Refiners' Raw Material Consumption Toward Heavier Feedstocks 45
Lower Sulfur Specifications Worldwide 46
Refinery Catalysts Market Shares 46
Refinery Catalysts Market Forecast 2016 49

1. REFINERY CATALYSTS MARKET DESCRIPTION AND MARKET DYNAMICS 51
1.1 Fluid Catalytic Cracking FCC Catalysts And Hydroprocessing Catalysts 51
1.1.1 Reducing Emissions From Diesel Engines 53
1.1.2 On-Road Vehicles Emission Of Nitrogen Oxide 54
1.1.3 Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) 54
1.2 Identifying Trends In The Refining Catalyst Market 55
1.2.1 Depleting Crude Oil Reserves 57
1.2.2 Catalysts Have To Be Protected From Particulates And Foulants 57
1.2.3 Conversion Rates 58
1.2.4 Catalyst Platforms Customized Solution For Each Specific Refinery Or Unit Operation 59
1.2.5 Residue Upgrading Challenge 59
1.3 Process Catalysts 59
1.4 Refining Catalysts 60
1.4.1 Refining Catalyst Economic Trends: Btu Growth In Energy Consumption 60
1.4.2 Refining Catalyst Business Trends 60
1.4.3 Refining Catalyst Business: Transformation From Regional To Global Undertaking, Leveraging Economies Of Scale 61
1.4.4 Increased Manufacturing Costs 61
1.4.5 Catalyst Customization 61
1.5 Market Changes Impacting Refineries 63
1.5.1 Refinery Catalysts 63
1.6 Refinery Catalysts: Suppliers Tap Emerging Markets 65
1.6.1 Refining Industry 66
1.7 Global Refining Industry Additions 67
1.7.1 Sinopec Boosts Refining Capacity To 232 Mln Tons 68
1.8 Oil Refineries 69
1.8.1 Economic Environment Of Constrained Refinery Capex 69
1.9 Diesel 70
1.9.1 Maximizing Diesel Production Through Integrated Hydroprocessing 70
1.10 Hydrotreating 72
1.10.1 Hydrotreating Process Description 74
1.10.2 Typical Causes Of Deactivation Of Hydroprocessing Catalysts 74
1.10.3 Typical Methods Of Performance Recovery and Regeneration Of Hydroprocessing Catalysts 75
1.10.4 Hydrotreating Catalysts 76
1.10.5 Hydrocracking 77
1.11 Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) 78
1.12 Reforming 79
1.13 Refinery Costs and Supply 80
1.14 Fuel Consumption In Transportation 81
1.14.1 Changing Trends 82
1.14.2 Rising Consumption Of Petroleum Based Derivatives 83
1.14.3 Demand For Maintaining High Octane Number 83
1.14.4 Catalytic Hydrotreating 86
1.15 Natural Gas Energy Market Growth 89

2. REFINERY CATALYSTS MARKET SHARES AND FORECASTS 91
2.1 Refinery Catalysts Market Driving Forces 91
2.1.1 Change Is the Only Constant 93
2.1.2 Shift In Refiners' Raw Material Consumption Toward Heavier Feedstocks 95
2.1.3 Lower Sulfur Specifications Worldwide 96
2.2 Refinery Catalysts Market Shares 96
2.2.1 Shell CRI-Criterion Hydrocracking Catalysts 100
2.2.2 Grace 100
2.2.3 Chevron and Grace Formed Advanced Refining Technologies (ART), 101
2.2.4 Albemarle Addresses Demand For Refinery Catalysts 102
2.2.5 Catalysts and Licensing LLC, ExxonMobil 102
2.2.6 Criterion 103
2.2.7 Criterion NAPHTHA 104
2.2.8 ExxonMobil Corporation 105
2.2.9 BASF 105
2.2.10 BASF FCC Refining Catalysts 105
2.2.11 Haldor Topsoe 106
2.2.12 Johnson Matthey 106
2.2.13 SINOPEC Catalyst Company 106
2.2.14 UNICAT Catalyst Technologies, Inc. 107
2.3 Refinery Catalysts Market Forecast 2016 107
2.3.1 Albemarle REACT™ has been successfully used to reactivate 115
2.4 Refinery Catalyst Molybdenum and Momentum 115
2.5 Hydroprocessing Refinery Catalysts 126
2.5.1 Hydrocracking Catalysts 128
2.5.2 Hydrodesulphurization Catalyst 129
2.5.3 Production of Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel ULSD to Meet Global Diesel Needs 129
2.5.4 Hydrocracking Integration 131
2.5.5 Hydrocracking Meeting Refining Challenges 131
2.5.6 Hydrotreating 131
2.6 Hydroprocessing Refinery Catalyst Market Shares 132
2.6.1 Albemarle Hydroprocessing Catalyst Area 135
2.6.2 Albemarle Addressing Is The Need For More Hydroprocessing Capacity 135
2.6.3 Haldor Topsoe 136
2.6.4 Topsoe Reforming 137
2.6.5 Shell / Criterion 137
2.6.6 Shell CRI Catalyst Company Part of CRI/Criterion Inc., Ethylene Oxide 139
2.6.7 Shell Group Criterion Catalysts & Technologies (Houston) 139
2.6.8 ART 140
2.6.9 Chevron/Grace Venture, ART 142
2.6.10 Axens’ Hydrocracking Technologies 142
2.6.11 Axens Diesel Hydrotreating 142
2.6.12 Honeywell UOP 143
2.6.13 Zeolyst 144
2.6.14 Clariant / Süd-Chemie 144
2.6.15 UOP the CANMET 145
2.6.16 Hydroprocessing Catalyst Market Forecasts 145
2.6.17 Hydroprocessing Catalyst Market Forecasts 148
2.6.18 Customization of Hydroprocessing Catalysts 150
2.6.19 Hydroprocessing Refinery Facility 152
2.6.20 Distillate Hydrotreating Business 152
2.6.21 Hydroprocessing Is A Technology-Driven Market 153
2.7 Fluid Catalytic Cracking FCC Refinery Catalysts 153
2.7.1 FCC 155
2.7.2 FCC Refinery Catalyst Market Shares 155
2.7.3 BASF 158
2.7.4 W.R. Grace 158
2.7.5 Albemarle 159
2.7.6 Albemarle AFX 159
2.7.7 FCC Refinery Catalyst Market Forecasts 160
2.7.8 Crude Oil Refining Process 161
2.8 Reforming Refinery Catalysts 162
2.8.1 Stability Of Reforming Catalysts 162
2.8.2 Reforming Refinery Catalyst Market Shares 162
2.8.3 Honeywell UOP 165
2.8.4 Axens / Criterion Reforming Catalysts 166
2.8.5 Haldor Topsoe Reforming Catalysts 167
2.8.6 Johnson Matthey Catalysts Pre-Reforming 168
2.8.7 Reforming Refinery Catalyst Market Forecasts 168
2.9 Chemical Synthesis, Petroleum Refining And Polymerization Catalysts 170
2.9.1 Refining Catalyst Business Transformed From A Regional Business To A Global Undertaking 172
2.9.2 Catalyst Supplier Adaptation to Refining Business 172
2.10 Refinery and Refinery Catalyst Industry Mergers and Acquisitions 173
2.10.1 PBF Energy Completes Acquisition of the Torrance Refinery and Related Logistics Assets 173
2.10.2 Refinery Catalyst Industry Consolidation 174
2.10.3 Axens North America 174
2.10.4 BASF 174
2.10.5 Grace & Co. Acquires The Assets of BASF's Polyolefin Catalysts business. 175
2.10.6 Johnson Matthey 175
2.10.7 DuPont Acquired MECS 175
2.11 Refining, Re-Refining, and Biofuel Catalysts 176
2.12 FCC Crude Oil Refinery Catalysts for Refinement 178
2.13 Re-Refining Of Used Motor Oil: 185
Re-Refining Processes Have Had Serious Difficulties 189
2.14 Biofuel and Biochemicals 192
2.15 International Oil Companies (IOCs) Disposing Of Downstream Refinery Assets 197
2.15.1 Refinery Capacity 197
2.15.2 Non-OECD Capacities 198
2.16 World Consumption of Energy 199
2.16.1 Per Capita Energy Consumption 200
2.16.2 Refining Catalyst Producers Innovation Drivers 200
2.16.3 Worldwide Crude Oil Prices. 200
2.16.4 BASF Expects Long-Term Global Fuel Demand To Show A Strong Preference For Diesel Over Gasoline 203
2.16.5 Globalization & Consolidation 203
2.16.6 Alternative Fuels 203
2.16.7 Biofuels 204
2.17 Lithium 204
2.17.1 Albemarle Has Successfully Produced Lithium Carbonate 204
2.17.2 Albemarle Discovery in Lithium Carbonate Production 207
2.17.3 Market For Lithium Chemicals 207
2.18 Global Refinery Catalyst Market, By Metals Products 207
2.18.1 Refinery Operations Rive Technology and Grace Davison in Partnership 208
2.18.2 Zeolite In-Demand Material 211
2.18.3 Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Catalyst 212
2.19 Prices for Refining Catalysts 213
2.19.1 Hydrotreating Catalysts Prices 246
2.19.2 Albemarle Increases Prices Of Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Catalysts 246
2.19.3 Rare Earth Element Impact on Catalyst Pricing 247
2.20 Refinery Catalyst Regional Analysis 247
2.20.1 Refinery Catalyst Market Forecasts by Region 251
2.20.2 United States 252
2.20.3 OPEC252
2.20.4 North America 253
2.20.5 EMEA 253
2.20.6 China 254
2.20.7 China Monitors Refining Capacity 255
2.20.8 Refining in China 255
2.20.9 Oil Refining Trends In South Korea – 256
2.20.10 Brazil 257
2.20.11 Developing Markets 257
2.20.12 Company Regional Participation in Refinery Catalyst Markets 259
2.20.13 Haldor Topsoe Strengthens Wet-Gas Sulphuric Acid Units (WSA) Activities in China 263
2.20.14 Regional Analysis For All Types Of Chemical Catalysts 263
2.20.15 Worldwide Heterogeneous Catalyst Refining Business 264

3. REFINERY CATALYSTS PRODUCT DESCRIPTION 266
3.1 Overview Oil Refinery Catalysts 266
3.1.1 Hydro Processing Catalysts (HPC ) 273
3.2 Albemarle Refining Solutions 273
3.2.1 Albemarle Chemical Catalysts 274
3.2.2 Albemarle Total Catalyst Management 275
3.2.3 Albemarle Hydro Processing Catalysts (HPC) Positioning 276
3.2.4 Albemarle Hydro Processing Catalysts (HPC ) 276
3.2.5 Albemarle Hydroprocessing Catalysts (HPC ) 277
3.2.6 Albemarle Pretreat Catalysts Impact on Hydrocracking Catalyst 278
3.2.7 Albemarle Diesel Hydrotreating Catalysts 279
3.2.8 Albemarle’s STARS Technology 280
3.2.9 Albemarle STARS Catalysts Joint Venture Partner Nippon Keene Co 281
3.2.10 Albemarle STARS Catalyst Multiple Reactivations 282
3.2.11 Albemarle STARS Catalysts 282
3.2.12 Albemarle STA X™ Technology 283
3.2.13 Albemarle Refinery Catalyst Development Related To Hydroprocessing Of Vegetable Oils 284
3.2.14 Albemarle / Neste Oil Production Of Renewable Diesel: Neste Oil NExBTL® Technology Scales 286
3.2.15 Albemarle Direct Desulfurization Catalyst Resolves Problem for Neste Solvent Production 290
3.2.16 Albemarle High-Performance Low Rare Earth Technology: Rare Earth Market 291
3.2.17 Albemarle's Low Rare Earth Technology (LRT(TM)) Catalysts Offer Increasing Value as Rare Earth Mineral Prices Continue to
Soar. 291
3.2.18 Selected Albemarle Catalysts 292
3.2.19 Albemarle NEBULA 20 295
3.2.20 Albemarle Hydroconversion 296
3.2.21 Albemarle KC 2610 296
3.2.22 Albemarle Grading & Guard Catalysts 296
3.2.23 Albemarle Isomerization 298
3.2.24 Albemarle / Axens, ATIS-2L and ATIS-1L 299
3.2.25 Catalyst ROI from Albemarle 299
3.2.26 Albemarle and Petrobras World-Scale Hydroprocessing Catalysts Production Plant 299
3.2.27 Albemarle REACTTM 300
3.2.28 Albemarle Services Commercial Technology Services 301
3.2.29 Albemarle Process Technology 302
3.2.30 UOP and Albemarle Hydroprocessing Alliance 303
3.2.31 Albemarle Alkylation 306
3.2.32 Albemarle Catalysts, CBI Lummus and Neste Oil Solid Acid Catalyst Gasoline Alkylation Technology, AlkyClean 306
3.2.33 Albemarle Biofuels Catalysts 307
3.2.34 Albemarle Unlocking The Potential Of Biomass Through High-Performance, Heterogeneous Catalysts309
3.2.35 Albemarle Corporation Acquires Catilin In Biofuels Market 309
3.2.36 Albemarle Grading & Guard Catalysts 310
3.2.37 Albemarle Cost Effective Catalysts For Paraffin Isomerization 310
3.2.38 Albemarle Specialty Zeolites 310
3.2.39 Albemarle Other Catalysts 311
3.3 Haldor Topsoe Hydroprocessing Worldwide 312
3.3.1 Haldor Topsoe TK-449 SiliconTrap™ 313
3.3.2 Haldor Topsoe TK-747 HyOctane 314
3.3.3 Haldor Topsoe TK-611 HyBRIM 315
3.3.4 Haldor Topsoe TK-578 BRIM 316
3.3.5 Haldor Topsoe Refining Solutions 316
3.3.6 Haldor Topsoe BRIM™ Catalysts 317
3.3.7 Topsoe Catalysis Hydroprocessing 318
3.3.8 Topsoe Hydro Processing Design Facilities 318
3.3.9 Haldor Topsoe Catalyst Varieties 319
3.3.10 Haldor Topsoe Researching Catalysis 319
3.3.11 Haldor Topsoe BRIM™ Catalysts 320
3.3.12 Topsoe Meeting Sulphur Specification Standards 335
3.3.13 Topsoe Catalytic Reaction Sites 335
3.3.14 Topsoe Molybdenum Disulphide Nanocrystals 336
3.4 Chevron and Grace / ART Hydrotreating Catalysts 336
3.4.1 Grace ART Hydroprocessing Catalysts 336
3.4.2 Grace Advanced Refining Technologies 339
3.4.3 ART Ebullated Bed Resid Hydrocracking Line 341
3.4.4 Chevron All Hydroprocessing 341
3.5 Advanced Energy Materials 343
3.5.1 Advanced Energy Material’s Carbon Capture Adsorbents 344
3.5.2 Advanced Energy Materials Lithium-ion Batteries 345
3.6 Axens Hydrocracking 349
3.6.1 Axens Hydrocracking Licensing 349
3.6.2 Axens Mild Hydrocracking and HyC-10 353
3.6.3 Axens Two-Stage Hydrocracking 354
3.6.4 Axens Once-Through HyK Hydrocracker 356
3.6.5 Axens Amorphous-Type Hydrocracking Catalyst HDK 776 356
3.6.6 Axens Hydrocracking Reactor Performance 357
3.6.7 Axens’ Hydrocracking Technologies 358
3.6.8 Axens HR Series Catalysts with ACE™ Technology 358
3.6.9 Axens Hydrocracking Licensing 359
3.6.10 Axens Recommended Hydrocracking Process 361
3.6.11 Axens Mild Hydrocracking and HyC-10 363
3.7 Shell CRI Hydrotreating Catalysts 364
3.7.1 Shell Group / CRI / Criterion Inc 365
3.7.2 Shell Criterion Catalysts Services 365
3.7.3 Shell CRI-Criterion actiCat Services 367
3.7.4 Shell CRI-Criterion ENCORE Revitalisation 368
3.7.5 Criterion Custom Catalysts 369
3.7.6 Shell CRI-Criterion Catalysts Analytical Systems 372
3.7.7 Criterion Denox – SCR Catalyst 373
3.7.8 Criterion Dioxin Destruction 376
3.7.9 Criterion VOC Catalyst & CO Catalyst 377
3.7.10 Criterion CO2 Polishing Catalyst 378
3.7.11 Criterion Tertiary N2O Abatement 378
3.7.12 Criterion Zeolyst Specialties 380
3.7.13 Criterion Hydrocracking 381
3.7.14 Criterion Distillate Hydrotreating 383
3.7.15 Criterion NAPHTHA 385
3.7.16 Criterion Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel ULSD 394
3.7.17 Criterion Distillate Hydrotreating 396
3.7.18 Criterion Distillate Hydrotreating 397
3.7.19 Criterion Next Generation Zeolite Nano Scale Technology And Nano Engineering At Production Levels 400
3.7.20 Criterion CRI Offers Catalysts For The Full Hydrogenation Of Benzene To Cyclohexane 404
3.7.21 Criterion's Distillate Hydrotreating Application 404
3.7.22 Criterion’s ASCENT Catalyst Technology 405
3.7.23 Criterion CENTINEL™ Technology 405
3.7.24 Criterion SYNCats™ Specialized Catalysts For Distillate Upgrading 406
3.7.25 Criterion FCC 408
3.8 Johnson Matthey HYTREAT 410
3.9 BASF Hydrogenation 411
3.9.1 BASF’s Catalysts Division 412
3.9.2 BASF Copper-Chrome Catalysts for Hydrogenation Processes 413
3.10 Axens Renewable Oils & Fats Hydroprocessing 415
3.10.1 Axens and GENTAS to Build Hydroprocessing Catalyst Manufacturing Plant in Saudi Arabia 415
3.10.2 Axens Mild Hydrocracking and HyC-10 416
3.10.3 Axens Two-Stage Hydrocracking 417
3.10.4 Axens Once-Through HyK Hydrocracker 419
3.10.5 Axens Amorphous-Type Hydrocracking Catalyst HDK 776 419
3.10.6 Axens Hydrocracking Reactor Performance 420
3.10.7 Axens’ Hydrocracking Technologies 421
3.11 UNICAT Catalyst Technologies 422
3.11.1 UNICAT HT-86R 423
3.11.2 UNICAT Catalyst Technologies 423
3.12 Reforming Catalysts 423
3.13 Haldor Topsoe Reforming Catalysts 424
3.13.1 Topsoe Steam Reforming Features 427
3.13.2 Topsoe's Steam Reforming Portfolio 427
3.13.3 Haldor Topsoe Light Feedstock Reforming Catalysts 430
3.14 Honeywell UOP CCR Catalyst 431
3.14.1 Honeywell UOP Naphtha Hydrotreating Catalysts 432
3.14.2 UOP High Performance Chloride Treaters 433
3.14.3 UOP Hydroprocessing Guard Bed Materials 434
3.14.4 Honeywell Unity™ Hydrocracking Catalysts 435
3.14.5 Honeywell Unity™ Hydrotreating Catalysts Support End-To-End Solutions 436
3.15 SINOPEC Catalyst Company FCC, Hydrocracking Catalysts, Residual Oil Hydrogenation Catalysts, Reforming Catalysts
437
3.16 Clariant Catalysts 449
3.16.1 Clariant Petrochemical & Refining Catalysts 450
3.16.2 Clariant Syngas Catalysts 450
3.16.3 Clariant Chemical Catalysts 450
3.16.4 Clariant Emissions Control Catalyst 451
3.16.5 Clariant Custom Catalysts 452
3.17 Grace 453
3.17.1 Grace FCC Catalysts 454
3.17.2 Grace Polyolefin Catalysts 457
3.18 Albemarle FCC 463
3.18.1 Albemarle FCC Heavy Oil Upgrading 464
3.18.2 Albemarle FCC Additives 464
3.18.3 Albemarle Bespoke Catalyst Solution 465
3.18.4 Albemarle GO-ULTRA Catalyst Improving Bottoms Conversion 466
3.18.5 Albemarle Propylene Maximization in FCC and Residue FCC 468
3.18.6 Albemarle AFX 469
3.18.7 Albemarle Cerium In SOx Additives 469
3.18.8 Albemarle SOxMASTER SOx Reduction Additive 470
3.18.9 Albemarle SOx Additive Predictive Model 471
3.18.10 Albemarle’s Rare Earth Free Fuel-Sulfur and SOx-Reduction Solutions 476
3.18.11 Albemarle Driving Down Sox Mitigation Costs 476
3.18.12 Albemarle European Refinery That Uses 7% SOxMASTER 477
3.18.13 Albemarle High-Performance Low Rare Earth Technology: Rare Earth Market 477
3.18.14 Albemarle Step Change In Catalyst Design Technology For Gas Processing, Refining, Residue Upgrading And Petrochemicals
478
3.18.15 Albemarle Delivering Premium FCC Catalysts 479
3.18.16 Albemarle KF 770 Catalyst 479
3.18.17 Albemarle Bespoke Catalyst Solution 482
3.18.18 Albemarle Energy from Alternative Fuel Sources 484
3.18.19 Albemarle and Petrobras’s Brazil-Based Joint-Venture Company, Fábrica Carioca de Catalisadores SA (FCC SA) 485
3.18.20 Albemarle Advantage In Polyethylene Polyolefin Catalyst Technologies 486
3.18.21 Albemarle Breaking Into The Russian GO-ULTRA Gas Oil FCC Market 486
3.18.22 Albemarle Specialty Resins 487
3.18.23 Albemarle Polyolefin And Chemical Catalysts Division 489
3.18.24 Albemarle Catalyst Accessibility 490
3.18.25 Albemarle Propylene Maximization in FCC and Residue FCC 491
3.18.26 Albemarle AFX 491
3.19 BASF FCC Proximal Stable Matrix and Zeolite (Prox-SMZ) 492
3.19.1 BASF 493
3.19.2 BASF Multi-Stage Reaction Catalyst (MSRC) Platform 494
3.19.3 BASF Advanced Matrix Material 494
3.19.4 BASF Development of the Stamina Catalyst 496
3.19.5 BASF Stamina resid FCC Distillate Maximization Catalyst 497
3.19.6 Commercial Evaluation of BASF Stamina at Big West Oil in Salt Lake City, UT in the FCC Unit 499
3.19.7 BASF Catalyst Technology Achieves Maximization Of Highly Efficient FCC Distillate 502
3.19.8 BASF Development of the Stamina Catalyst 506
3.20 Rive Technology and Grace Davison 510
3.20.1 Rive Technology FCC 510
3.21 Johnson Matthey FCC Additives & Catalyst Handling Technologies 512

4. REFINERY CATALYSTS RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY 514
4.1 NanoWireXTM - AdEM's bulk production technology for nanowire powders 514
4.1.1 NanowireX Ultrafast Nanowire Production At Low Processing Cost 515
4.2 Nanotechnology Catalyst Technology Developments 516
4.2.1 Topsoe Fundamental Understanding Of Catalysts Through Nanotechnology 519
4.2.2 Topsoe Molybdenum Disulphide Nanocrystals 520
4.2.3 Criterion Next Generation Zeolite Nano Scale Technology And Nano Engineering At Production Levels 521
4.2.4 Criterion CRI Offers Catalysts For The Full Hydrogenation Of Benzene To Cyclohexane 525
4.3 Global Energy Demands 525
4.4 Hydrocracking Technology 527
4.4.1 HFC Designing Catalyst Systems Optimized For The Particular Reactions Occurring Inside A Hydrotreater 527
4.4.2 Albemarle Step Change In Catalyst Design Technology For Gas Processing, Refining, Residue Upgrading And Petrochemicals
528
4.4.3 Albemarle and Petrobras World-Scale Hydroprocessing Catalysts Production Plant 529
4.5 UOP Reforming Catalysts 530
4.6 Sweetening Catalysts 532
4.7 Isomerization Catalysts 532
4.7.1 Isomerization 533
4.8 Zeolite Chemistry 533
4.8.1 Zeolyst Leverages Zeolite Chemistry 533
4.8.2 Zeolyst Hydroprocessing Catalyst 536
4.8.3 Zeolites 536
4.8.4 Catalyst Zeolites Are Used To Refine Petroleum 537
4.8.5 Hydrated Aluminosilicates 538
4.8.6 Most Common Natural Zeolites 538
4.9 Rare Earth Strategies 540
4.9.1 Molycorp’s Mountain Pass, CA 541
4.9.2 Lynas Corp 542
4.9.3 Rare Earth Element Impact on Catalyst Pricing 542
4.9.4 Catalyst Substitutes That Exhibit Similar Properties To Rare Earth Elements 542
4.9.5 Albemarle’s Rare Earth Free Fuel-Sulfur and SOx-Reduction Solutions 543
4.9.6 Albemarle Rare Earth Catalyst 543
4.10 Increased Focus On Benzene Management 546
4.10.1 Refinery Options for Producing ULSD 547
4.10.2 Estimating Costs for Individual Refineries 547
4.10.3 ULSD Unit Model Assumptions 548
4.11 Emerging Catalysts 550
4.12 Bromide551

5. REFINERY CATALYSTS COMPANY PROFILES 552
5.1 Advanced Energy Materials LLC 552
5.2 Advanced Refining Technologies (ART) 556
5.2.1 ART A Leading Global Supplier 558
5.2.2 ART 559
5.3 Air Products 559
5.3.1 Air Products Fourth Quarter Segment Performance 563
5.4 Albemarle 563
5.4.1 Albemarle 2016 Highlights 563
5.4.2 Albemarle Refining Solutions: 566
5.4.3 Albemarle Lithium and Advanced Materials: 568
5.4.4 Albemarle Technologies 572
5.4.5 Albemarle Joint Venture in Saudi Arabia with SABIC 584
5.4.6 Albemarle and Petrobras Partnership To Provide South America With Clean Fuels 586
5.4.7 Albemarle and Petrobras Partnership To Build Hydroprocessing Catalyst (HPC) Production Plant 586
5.4.8 Albemarle Responds to New Refineries in Korea, Japan and India 587
5.4.9 Albemarle / Neste Oil Vegetable Oil Refinery 587
5.4.10 Albemarle Biofuels 588
5.4.11 Albemarle Catilin Technology 589
5.4.12 Albemarle Globalization & Consolidation, Houston Facilities 589
5.4.13 Albemarle Acquires Catilin Expanding Biofuels Catalyst Portfolio 590
5.4.14 Albemarle Discovery in Lithium Carbonate Production 591
5.4.15 Albemarle Commercial Technology Services 592
5.4.16 Albemarle Pretreat Catalysts 597
5.4.17 Albemarle Diesel Hydrotreating Catalysts 598
5.5 ART Hydroprocessing Catalysts 598
5.6 BASF 600
5.6.1 BASF Revenue 600
5.6.2 BASF 601
5.6.3 BASF Catalysts Division 601
5.6.4 BASF Acquisition Of Shell’s CRI/Criterion (Houston) Styrene Catalyst Business 601
5.6.5 BASF Qtech Formed To Commercialize Catalytic Surface Coatings For Steam Cracker Furnace Tubes602
5.7 Chevron 603
5.7.1 Chevron Pascagoula Refinery Facilities 604
5.8 Clean Diesel Technologies 605
5.8.1 Clean Diesel Meeting Global Air Quality Standards 607
5.8.2 Clean Diesel Emissions Solution 607
5.8.3 Clean Diesel Revenue 608
5.8.4 Clean Diesel Technologies / Catalytic Solutions 608
5.8.5 Catalytic Solutions Catalyst Division 610
5.9 Clariant AG / Süd-Chemie AG, Munich, a Subsidiary of the Swiss company 610
5.9.1 Clariant Acquires Sud-Chemie 611
5.9.2 Clariant Catalysis and Energy 613
5.9.3 Clariant Business Unit Catalysis & Energy 613
5.10 Dow 615
5.11 Evonik Industries 616
5.12 ExxonMobil Catalysts and Licensing LLC, 616
5.12.1 Exxon Refinery Catalyst Applications 618
5.12.2 ExxonMobil Refinery Catalyst Competitive Insights 622
5.13 Haldor Topsoe 622
5.13.1 Haldor Topsoe A/S 623
5.13.2 Haldor Topsoe 624
5.13.3 Haldor Topsoe Researching Catalysis 624
5.13.4 Haldor Topsoe Expanding Markets 625
5.13.5 Haldor Topsoe BRIM™ catalysts 626
5.13.6 Haldor Topsoe Strengthens Wet-Gas Sulphuric Acid Units (WSA) Activities in China 641
5.13.7 Topsoe Catalyst Business Model 642
5.13.8 Haldor Topsoe Catalysis Research 642
5.13.9 Haldor Topsoe Revenue 643
5.13.10 Topsoe Wet-Gas Sulphuric Acid WSA 644
5.13.11 Topsoe WSA Expanding Markets 644
5.13.12 Topsoe's Refining Experience 645
5.13.13 Haldor Topsoe BRIM™ Catalysts 645
5.13.14 Topsoe Hydroprocessing 649
5.13.15 Haldor Topsoe Market Experience 649
5.13.16 Haldor Topsoe Catalysts 650
5.13.17 Haldor Topsoe India Private Limited 650
5.13.18 Haldor Topsoe 651
5.13.19 Haldor Topsoe Advises Clients 651
5.13.20 Haldor Topsoe Catalyst Market Activity 651
5.13.21 Haldor Topsoe 654
5.13.22 Haldor Topsoe Researching Catalysis 654
5.14 Headwaters Technology Innovation (HTI) 656
5.15 Honeywell / UOP 657
5.15.1 Honeywell Management Discussion 2016 657
5.15.2 Honeywell Business 657
5.15.3 Honeywell Automation and Control Solutions 658
5.15.4 Honeywell Performance Materials and Technologies 659
5.15.5 Honeywell Competition 660
5.15.6 Honeywell UOP Technology Selected by Petrobras for Two New Refineries to Expand Diesel Production 661
5.15.7 UOP LLC, a Honeywell (NYSE: HON) Contracts 661
5.15.8 UOP Regional Locations 663
5.15.9 UOP Catalysts 664
5.15.10 Catalysts for Refining 665
5.15.11 UOP Catalyst Solutions Applications: 665
5.15.12 UOP Distillate-Selective Catalysts 668
5.15.13 UPO Hydrotreating Catalysts 672
5.15.14 UOP / Albemarle Guard Bed 672
5.15.15 UOP Reforming Catalysts: 674
5.15.16 UOP CCR Platforming Catalysts 675
5.15.17 UOP Cyclic Reforming Catalysts 675
5.15.18 UOP Naphtha Hydrotreating Catalysts 676
5.15.19 UOP Sulfur Guard Beds 676
5.15.20 UOP High Performance Adsorbents for Drying 676
5.15.21 UOP High Performance Chloride Treaters 677
5.15.22 UOP Isomerization Catalysts: 677
5.15.23 UOP Isomerization Catalysts 679
5.15.24 UOP BenSat Catalysts for Benzene Saturation 680
5.15.25 UOP Naphtha Hydrotreating Catalysts 680
5.15.26 UOP Sulfur Guard Beds for Isomerization Process 681
5.15.27 UOP High Performance Adsorbents for Drying 681
5.15.28 UOP Merox™ Treating Catalysts 681
5.15.29 UOP Treating Catalysts 682
5.15.30 UOP Catalyst For Aromatics Production 684
5.15.31 UOP Liquid-Phase Alkylation Catalysts 684
5.15.32 UOP Aromatics Complex 685
5.15.33 UOP Ethylbenzene & Styrene 686
5.15.34 UOP Cumene & Phenol 686
5.15.35 UOP Advanced Catalysts Solutions for Olefins Production 687
5.15.36 UOP Olefin Catalysts 687
5.15.37 UOP Catalysts for High Quality Detergents Production 687
5.15.38 UOP Detergents Technologies 688
5.15.39 Honeywell / UOP Renewable Energy and Chemicals Business 689
5.15.40 UOP and Albemarle Form a Hydroprocessing Alliance 690
5.15.41 UOP Partnership with Crystaphase Products 691
5.16 IFP Energies Nouvelles Group Company / Axens / Eurecat 692
5.16.1 IFP Energies Nouvelles Group Company / Eurecat : Catalyst Regeneration And Conditioning Services694
5.16.2 Axens 694
.5.16.3 Axens Main Areas Of Activity 695
5.16.4 Axens’ Business Units 700
5.16.5 Axens Acquires Shell's Criterion Reforming Catalysts & Technology Division 700
5.16.6 Axens Engineering Support 701
5.16.7 Axens Pilot Plant Testing 701
5.16.8 Axens, / IFP Energies nouvelles Group Company R&D Investment 702
5.16.9 Axens Positioning: 702
5.16.10 Axens Oil Refining Catalysts 703
5.16.11 Axens Top of The Barrel Octanizing 705
5.16.12 Axens Diesel Hydrotreating 705
5.16.13 Axens Catalytic Regeneration Reforming 706
5.17 Indian Oil Corporation 707
5.17.1 IndianOil Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Mumbai 708
5.18 Johnson Matthey 709
5.18.1 Johnson Matthey Global Divisions 717
5.18.2 Johnson Matthey Acquires FCC Additives Producer Intercat Catalysts 717
5.18.3 Johnson Matthey Emission Control Technologies 717
5.19 KBR Hydroprocessing 717
5.20 Nanostellar 718
5.21 Petrobras Partnership with Albemarle 723
5.21.1 Petrobras Hydroprocessing Catalysts Investing To Improve Quality Of Oil Derived Streams 724
5.22 Quantiam Technologies Inc. 724
5.23 Shell / Criterion 725
5.23.1 Shell Financial Performance in 2016 725
5.23.2 Criterion Catalyst Portfolio Performance Data 727
5.23.3 Shell Oil Upstream 729
5.23.4 Shell Oil Downstream 730
5.23.5 Shell Sekiyu 731
5.23.6 Shell Exploration 731
5.23.7 Shell Integrated Gas 731
5.23.8 Shell CRI 732
CO2 Polishing Catalyst 736
Dioxin Destruction 736
Ethylene Oxide 736
Guard Bed Materials 737
N2O Abatement 737
Selective Hydrogenation Catalysts 737
VOC Catalyst & CO Catalyst 737
Environmental Catalysts 737
Full Hydrogenation Catalysts 738
Membranes 738
Renewables 738
SCR Catalyst (DeNOX) 738
Vinyl Acetate Monomer Catalyst 738
5.23.9 Shell CRI Catalyst Company CRI/Criterion 741
Research and development 742
Shell Global Solutions Technology Licensing 742
Shell Global Solutions products and services - opens in new window 742
5.23.10 Criterion Markets, Customers, Products & Services 743
5.23.11 Shell Criterion 746
5.23.12 Criterion Sustainable Development 749
5.23.13 Shell's Criterion Catalysts & Technology Sells Division to Axens 749
5.24 Shoaibi Group / General Technology & Systems Company Ltd (GENTAS) 750
5.25 Sinopec China Petrochemical Corporation 750
5.25.1 Sinopec Group China's Largest Producer And Supplier Of Refined Oil Products 753
5.25.2 SINOPEC Catalyst Company 754
5.25.3 SINOPEC Catalyst Company FCC, Hydrocracking Catalysts, Residual Oil Hydrogenation Catalysts, Reforming Catalysts 755
5.26 UNICAT Catalyst Technologies 756
5.26.1 UNICAT Catalysts for Hydrogen Production 758
5.26.2 UNICAT Catalysts 760
5.27 WR Grace 762
5.27.1 WR Grace Management Discussion 763
5.27.2 WR Grace Refining Technologies 764
5.27.3 Grace Construction Products 764
5.27.4 Grace Refining Technologies 765
5.27.5 Grace Construction Products 765
5.27.6 Grace Specialty Catalysts & Process Technologies 765
5.27.7 Grace Polyethylene Catalysts 767
5.27.8 Grace Refining Technologies 768
5.27.9 Grace Specialty Catalysts 768
5.27.10 Grace Refining Technologies: Fluid Catalytic Cracking 770
5.27.11 Grace Refining Technologies: Hydroprocessing Catalysts 770
5.27.12 Grace Refining Technologies 771
5.27.13 Grace Advanced Refining Technologies 772
5.27.14 Grace ART Hydrotreating Fundamentals- 772
5.27.15 Grace Davison 773
5.27.16 Grace Construction Products 773
5.27.17 Grace Construction Specialty Building Materials 773
5.28 Zeochem 774
5.28.1 Zeochem AG Has Developed And Manufactured High Silica Zeolite Products 775
5.28.2 Zeochem AG Volatile Organic Compounds VOC's 775
5.28.3 ZEOcat® Pentasil Structure Zeolites 776
5.28.4 ZEOcat® Mordenite Crystal Structure Zeolite 776
5.28.5 ZEOCHEM® Molecular Sieves 777
5.28.6 ZEOCHEM Molecular Sieve Adsorbents Basics 778
5.29 Zeolyst 779
5.30 Selected Refinery Catalyst Companies 780
5.30.1 Emerging Catalyst Companies 781
5.30.2 FCC Catalyst & Additive Suppliers 781
5.30.3 Selected Companies 785
5.30.4 Government Agencies and Other Organizations 813
List of Figures

Figure 1. Refinery Catalyst Market Trends 42
Figure 2. Refinery Catalyst Market Driving Forces 44
Figure 3. Refinery Catalyst Market Shares, Dollars, Worldwide, 2016 47
Figure 4. Refinery Catalysts Market Shares, Dollars, Worldwide, 2016 48
Figure 5. Refinery Catalysts Market Forecasts, Shipments, Dollars, Worldwide, 2017-2023 50
Figure 6. Oil and Gas Catalysts 51
Figure 7. Refining Catalyst Market Catalytic Processes Market Factors 55
Figure 8. Worldwide Refining Industry Profit Margin Improvement Strategy 56
Figure 9. Refining Catalysts Usage 62
Figure 10. Shell Oil Maximizing Diesel Production Through Integrated Hydroprocessing 71
Figure 11. Naphtha Hydrotreating 73
Figure 12. Kerosene Hydrotreating 73
Figure 13. Diesel Hydrotreating 73
Figure 14. VGO Hydrotreating (FCC Pretreat) 74
Figure 15. Typical Causes Of Deactivation Of Hydroprocessing Catalysts 75
Figure 16. Hydrotreating Catalysts Uses 76
Figure 17. FCC Additives And Catalyst Objectives 78
Figure 18. Handling Chemistry Challenges 84
Figure 19. Production Of Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel ULSD Complexities 85
Figure 20. Natural Gas Market Growth 89
Figure 21. LNG Value Chain Opportunities 90
Figure 22. Refinery Catalyst Market Trends 92
Figure 23. Refinery Catalyst Market Driving Forces 94
Figure 24. Refinery Catalyst Market Shares, Dollars, Worldwide, 2016 98
Figure 25. Refinery Catalysts Market Shares, Dollars, Worldwide, 2016 99
Figure 26. Refinery Catalysts Market Forecasts, Shipments, Dollars, Worldwide, 2017-2023 108
Figure 27. Refinery Catalysts Market Forecasts, Worldwide, 2017-2023 109
Figure 28. US Barrels per Day Production Capacity 116
Figure 29. World Energy Consumption, Oil, Coal, Gas, Renewables, Nuclear 120
Figure 30. Worldwide Refinery Capacity Additions 122
Figure 31. Non OECD Capacity Additions 123
Figure 32. Refining Catalyst Key Trends 125
Figure 33. Hydroprocessing Catalysts Market Shares, Dollars, Graph, 2016 127
Figure 34. Hydroprocessing Catalysts Market Shares, Dollars, 2016 128
Figure 35. Hydroprocessing Catalysts Market Forecasts, Shipments, Dollars, Worldwide, 2017-2023 146
Figure 36. Hydroprocessing Catalyst Market Forecasts, Shipments, Dollars, Worldwide, 2017-2023 147
Figure 37. Hydroprocessing Catalysts: Hydrotreating And Hydrocracking Segment Market Forecasts, Shipments,Worldwide, Dollars, 2017-2023 148
Figure 38. Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Catalyst Market Shares, Dollars, 2016 156
Figure 39. Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Catalyst Market Shares, Dollars, 2016 157
Figure 40. Fluid Catalytic Cracking FCC Catalysts Market Forecasts Worldwide, 2017-2023 160
Figure 41. Reforming Catalysts, Market Shares, Dollars, Worldwide, 2016 163
Figure 42. Reforming Catalysts Market Shares, Dollars, Worldwide, 2016 164
Figure 43. Haldor Topsoe Offers RKNGR Industry Segments 167
Figure 44. Johnson Matthey Catalysts Pre-Reforming 168
Figure 45. Reforming Catalysts Market Forecasts Worldwide, 2017-2023 169
Figure 46. Reforming Catalysts Market Forecasts Worldwide, 2017-2023 170
Figure 47. Refining Catalyst Types 171
Figure 48. Refining, Re-Refining, and Biofuel Catalysts Market Forecast Worldwide, 2014 to 2022 176
Figure 49. Refining, Re-Refining, and Biofuel Catalysts Market Forecast Dollars, US, 2014-2022 177
Figure 50. Types of Oil Refinery Catalysts 180
Figure 51. Refining Catalyst Materials 180
Figure 52. Crude Oil Refinery Market Driving Forces 181
Figure 53. Crude Oil Refinery Catalysts Market Driving Forces 182
Figure 54. Crude Oil Refinery Catalysts Regional Market Driving Forces 183
Figure 55. Crude Oil Refinery Catalysts Strategies for Growth 184
Figure 56. Re-Refining Catalyst Market Driving Forces 188
Figure 57. Re-Refining Feedstock Challenges 188
Figure 58. Biofuel Catalyst Market Benefits 195
Figure 59. Biofuel Catalyst Market Challenges 196
Figure 60. World Consumption of Energy 199
Figure 61. Worldwide Crude Oil Price Forecasts 202
Figure 62. Lithium Market Opportunity 205
Figure 63. Lithium Market Opportunity 206
.Figure 64. Global Refinery Catalyst Market, By Products 209
Figure 65. Global Zeolite Products 209
Figure 66. Global Refinery Catalyst Metals 209
Figure 67. Global Catalyst Precious Metals Market 210
Figure 68. Global Refinery Catalyst Transition And Base Metals 210
Figure 69. Global Compounds Market, By Products 211
Figure 70. Refinery Catalyst Regional Market Segments, 2016 248
Figure 71. Refinery Catalyst Regional Market Segments, 2016 249
Figure 72. Albemarle Investing in Developing Markets / Catalysts 258
Figure 73. Albemarle Regional Market 259
Figure 74. Albemarle Positioning In Asia 260
Figure 75. Albemarle Positioning In Middle East / India 261
Figure 76. Albemarle Global Positioning for Organometallics 262
Figure 77. Oil Refining FCC and Hydroprocessing Catalyst Market Drivers 266
Figure 78. Oil Refining Catalyst Market Strengths 267
Figure 79. Oil Refining Catalyst Market Weaknesses 268
Figure 80. Oil Refining Catalyst Market Opportunities 268
Figure 81. Oil Refining Catalyst Market Challenges 270
Figure 82. Sub-Markets Of The Oil Refinery Catalyst Market 271
Figure 83. Major Types Of Refinery Catalysts 272
Figure 84. Albemarle Primary Divisions 273
Figure 85. Albemarle Chemical Process Catalyst Business Group Provides A Range Of Catalytic Solutions 274
Figure 86. Hydroprocessing Alliance combines Albemarle’s Advanced STARS and Nebula with UOP Hydrocracking
Catalyst 278
Figure 87. Albemarle and UOP Alliance Albemarle’s Diesel Hydrotreating Catalyst 279
Figure 88. Albemarle HFC Unique Catalyst Systems Design Features 284
Figure 89. Neste Oil / Albemarle NExBTL Proprietary Diesel Catalyst Technology Operational Plants by Production
Quantity287
Figure 90. Selected Albemarle Catalysts 292
Figure 91. Selected Albemarle Specially Designed Catalysts 297
Figure 92. Albemarle ATIS 300
Figure 93. Albemarle Range Of Services 302
Figure 94. UOP And Albemarle Catalysts Guard Bed System Against Inorganic Fouling Elements 304
Figure 95. UOP and Albermarle Hydroprocessing Catalysts Guard Bed 305
Figure 96. Albemarle Portfolio Of Biofuel Catalyst 308
Figure 97. Haldor Topsoe TK-449 SiliconTrap 313
Figure 98. Haldor Topsoe TK-747 HyOctane 314
Figure 99. Haldor Topsoe TK-611 HyBRIM 315
Figure 100. Haldor Topsoe TK-578 BRIM 316
Figure 101. Haldor Topsoe Refining Solutions 317
Figure 102. Haldor Topsoe Catalyst Portfolio 320
Figure 103. ART As The Single Point Of Contact For All Hydroprocessing Catalysts 337
Figure 104. Chevron CLG's Three-Step, All-Hydroprocessing 341
Figure 105. Chevron Hydroprocessing Technology 342
Figure 106. AdEM Advanced Catalyst, Scalable And Cost-Effective Manufacturing 344
Figure 107. Advanced Energy Materials Lithium-ion Batteries 345
Figure 108. NanoWireX – AdEM Bulk Production Technology for Nanowire Powders 347
Figure 109. NanoWireX –Diesel Catalyst Nanowire Technology 348
Figure 110. NanoWireX – AdEM Bulk Nanowire 348
Figure 111. Axens Hydrocracking 349
Figure 112. Axens Hydrocracking Technology Uses 350
Figure 113. Axens FCC, SC Feeds 350
Figure 114. Axens Recommended Hydrocracking Process 352
Figure 115. Axens Hydrocracking Technology Uses 360
Figure 116. Axens FCC, SC feeds 360
Figure 117. Axens Recommended Hydrocracking Process 362
Figure 118. CRI Range Of Catalysts With Specific Focus On Hydrogenation Catalysts 365
Figure 119. Criterion Range Of Commercial Service Experiences 366
Figure 120. Shell Criterion CRI Catalyst Manufacturing Capabilities 371
Figure 121. Shell CRI-Criterion Catalysts Multitude Of Sizes 372
Figure 122. Shell CRI-Criterion Catalysts Analysis Capabilities 373
Figure 123. Shell CRI SCR Catalyst System Components 375
Figure 124. Shell, the CRI SCR Catalyst System Applications 378
Figure 125. Shell CRI-Criterion Catalyst Portfolio 384
Figure 126. Criterion Naphtha Hydrotreating Catalysts 387
Figure 127. Criterion Hydrogenation Catalysts 388
Figure 128. Shell CRI Catalyst Portfolio 389
Figure 129. Criterion Typical Hydroprocessing Process Unit for Catalyst Products 390
Figure 130. Criterion Hydrotreating Catalysts 391
Figure 131. Shell Criterion CRI Ascent Catalyst Hydrogeneration Environment, H2 Consumption 394
Figure 132. Criterion Ascent Catalyst Diesel Benefits 395
Figure 133. Criterion ULSD Catalyst Centers 396
Figure 134. Criterion Distillate Hydrotreating 397
Figure 135. Criterion Nano Engineering Effects Illustrated 401
Figure 136. Criterion Proprietary Zeolite 402
Figure 137. Criterion Base Metal Hydrotreating Catalysts Support Flexibility 403
Figure 138. Criterion R&D Challenge 403
Figure 139. Criterion's Distillate Hydrotreating Catalyst Type/Applications Description 404
Figure 140. Criterion's Grading and Poison Control Catalyst Type/Applications Description 406
Figure 141. Criterion FCC Catalyst Type/Applications Description 408
Figure 142. BASF Uses for Base-Metal for Copper And Copper-Chrome Catalysts 414
Figure 143. Haldor Topsoe RKNGR Reforming Catalysts 425
Figure 144. Topsoe's Steam Reforming Technologies 427
Figure 145. Haldor Topsoe Reforming Catalysts 428
Figure 146. Haldor Topsoe Reforming Catalysts 430
Figure 147. Honeywell UOP Range of CCR Platforming Catalysts 432
Figure 148. 3.16.1 Honeywell UOP Naphtha Hydrotreating Catalysts 433
Figure 149. UOP’s Hydroprocessing UF-75 catalyst 434
Figure 150. Honeywell Unity Hydrocracking Catalyst435
Figure 151. Honeywell Unity Hydrocracking Catalyst 437
Figure 152. SINOPEC Residue Cracking Catalyst 438
Figure 153. Clariant Emissions Catalyst Gases Controlled 452
Figure 154. Grace Catalysts Technologies Key Segments With Market-Leading Positions: 454
Figure 155. Grace FCC Catalysts Technologies 456
Figure 156. Grace Polyolefin Catalysts 459
Figure 157. Catalyst Components-Transition Metal Components 460
Figure 158. Grace Construction Fluid Catalytic Cracking Catalysts And Additives 462
Figure 159. Albemarle SOx Additive Predictive Model Metrics 473
Figure 160. Albemarle Catalyst Flow Diagram 474
Figure 161. Albemarle Polyolefin Catalyst Innovative Chemistries 475
Figure 162. Albemarle Polyolefin Catalysts Aspects 488
Figure 163. BASF FCC Yield Data for HDXtra 503
Figure 164. BASF Competitive Data HDXtra 504
Figure 165. BASF Competitive Data for Coke 505
Figure 166. BASF SEM Micrographs Of A FCC Catalyst With Prox-SMZ Technology 507
Figure 167. BASF Comparison of Coke Yield and LCO Selectivity of Flex-Tec and Stamina 508
Figure 168. BASF Flex and Stamina Comparison of the Bottoms and Naphtha Yield 509
Figure 169. Johnson Matthey Process Technologies FCC Additives And Addition Systems 513
Figure 170. AdEM NanowireX 514
Figure 171. Nanostellar Nanoparticle Surface Compositions That Change with Conditions 517
Figure 172. Nanostellar's Rational Design Methodology 518
Figure 173. Topsoe Supported RH Nanocrystal 519
Figure 174. Criterion Nano Engineering Effects Illustrated 522
Figure 175. Criterion Proprietary Zeolite 523
Figure 176. Criterion Base Metal Hydrotreating Catalysts Support Flexibility 524
Figure 177. Criterion R&D Challenge 524
Figure 178. Oil Refining Catalysts 526
Figure 179. Honeywell UOP CCR Platforming Process 531
Figure 180. Variations In Zeolite Chemistry 534
Figure 181. Zeolyst Standard Zeolite Powders 535
Figure 182. Albemarle Bromide Position 551
Figure 183. Advanced Energy Materials Commercialization Of Nanowire Based Materials Images 553
Figure 184. Air Products Target Markets 560
Figure 185. Air Products Formulations Developed 561
Figure 186. Air Products Specialty Chemicals Cost Benefits 562
Figure 187. Albemarle Business Segments 570
Figure 188. Albemarle Technologies 572
Figure 189. Albemarle Technology Platform Opportunity Scope 573
Figure 190. Albemarle Technology Platform Lithium Opportunity 574
Figure 191. Albemarle Platform Opportunity To Invest in Current Business 575
Figure 192. Albemarle Intersection of Core Capabilities Drives Competitive Advantage 576
Figure 193. Albemarle Technology Platform Adjacent Opportunities 577
Figure 194. Albemarle M&A 578
Figure 195. Albemarle Core Strengths 579
Figure 196. Albemarle Market Leadership Position 580
Figure 197. Albemarle Catalysts Revenue Opportunity 581
Figure 198. Albemarle Catalyst Solution Opportunity for Market Leading Position 582
Figure 199. Albemarle Sees Demand for Bromine Based Fire Safety 583
Figure 200. Albemarle Major Growth Opportunities for Organometallics 585
Figure 201. Albemarle Fluid Catalytic Cracking FCC Catalyst Services 593
Figure 202. Albemarle Process Additives 594
Figure 203. Süd-Chemie Functional Materials, Catalysts and Energy 611
Figure 204. ExxonMobil View of North America Refinery Catalyst Market Revenue By Material, Zeolite, Metallic,
Chemical Compounds, 2012-2022 (USD Million) 617
Figure 205. Exxon Mobil Catalyst Production Of High-Quality Diesel With Good Low Temperature Properties 621
Figure 206. Haldor Topsoe Solutions 626
Figure 207. Haldor Topsoe Catalyst portfolio 626
Figure 208. Selected Topsoe Partnerships 647
Figure 209. Topsoe New Catalysts And Processes 656
Figure 210. UOP and Albemarle Hydroprocessing Alliance 690
Figure 211. UOP CatTrap Solutions: 691
Figure 212. Axens’ Main Areas Of Activity 696
Figure 213. Axens’ Main Areas Of Activity, Image 697
Figure 214. Axens Portfolio Of Technologies, Catalysts, Adsorbents And Services 699
Figure 215. Axens Business Units: 700
Figure 216. Axens Oil Refining Catalysts 703
Figure 217. Axens Octanizing (Continuous Catalytic Regeneration Reforming) 706
Figure 218. Nanostellar Nanoparticle Surface Compositions That Change with Conditions 719
Figure 219. Nanostellar's Rational Design Methodology 721
Figure 220. Nanostellar Rational Design Methodology Approach 722
Figure 221. Nanostellar Rational Design Methodology Approach 723
Figure 222. Criterion Catalyst Portfolio 726
Figure 223. Shell CRI Specific Application Catalysts 733
Figure 224. Shell CRI Catalysts 735
Figure 225. Shell CRI SCR Catalyst (DeNOX) 736
Figure 226. Shell CRI Catalysts 736
Figure 227. CRI Catalyst Specific Applications 739
Figure 228. Shell Criterion Catalysts & Technologies Technical services 742
Figure 229. Shell Criterion Hydroprocessing Catalysts 744
Figure 230. Criterion Product Applications 746
Figure 231. UNICAT Fundamental Principles 756
Figure 232. UNICAT Lines Of Catalyst: Xevin Designs 757
Figure 233. UNICAT's Catalyst Uses 758
Figure 234. UNICAT Catalysts 759
Figure 235. Grace Specialty Catalysts 766 



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