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Liposomes

Published: Apr, 2015 | Pages: 1032 | Publisher: RESEARCH IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES
Industry: Biotechnology | Report Format: Electronic (PDF)

This market insight report on Liposomes gives an insight into global Liposomes market. The report provides market analytics by application, and by therapeutic area. The market is divided by Application into Therapeutic, Cosmetic and Other; and by Therapeutics into Antifungal, Anticancer, Ophthalmic and Other. The study also provides information regarding products and technologies in the field of Liposomes. Business profiles of 46 major companies are discussed in the report. The report covers more than 330 companies that are engaged in Liposomes research and supply of products and/or services. Compilation of Worldwide Patents and Research related to Liposomes is also provided. Projections and estimates are also illustrated by geographic regions encompassing North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World with 114 exclusive graphically represented exhibits. Information related to recent product releases, product developments, partnerships, collaborations, mergers and acquisitions, and other areas of concern is also covered in the report.
 Table of Content

1. SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY	1
2. REPORT SYNOPSIS	3
2.1 Liposomes - Introduction	3
Liposomes - A Detailed Exposition	3
Liposomes - History	4
Liposomes Classification	4
Preparation and Formation of Liposomes	5
Production Process	5
Drug or Solute Encapsulation into Liposomes - Process	6
Liposomes Modified with Cell-Penetrating Peptides	7
Applications	8
Exhibit 1. Segmentation of Global Liposomes’ Market by Application	11
Exhibit 2. Segmentation of Global Therapeutic Liposomes’ Market by Area	11
2.3 Liposomes - Global Market Analysis	12
Exhibit 3. Liposomes - Global Market Estimations & Predictions (2005- 2020) in US$ Million	12
Exhibit 4. List of Global Major Liposomes Companies	13
3. MARKET DYNAMICS	15
3.1 Market Overview	15
Liposomes and Pharmaceuticals	15
Liposomes and Nanotechnology	15
New Nanoparticles Can Replace Liposomes in Drug Delivery	15
New Methods of Liposomal Drug Delivery	16
Concerns with Large-scale Production of Liposomal Formulations	16
Lipid based Technologies	17
Lipid based Delivery Agents in Cosmetics	18
Exhibit 5. List of Approved Liposomal Drugs	21
3.2 Global Liposomes Market	24
Analysis by Geographic Region	24
Exhibit 6. Liposomes - Global Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World in US$ Million	25
Exhibit 7. Liposomes - Global Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World	26
3.3 North American Liposomes Market	27
Exhibit 8. Liposomes – North American Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for United States and Canada in US$ Million	27
Exhibit 9. Liposomes – North American Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for United States and Canada	28
3.3 (I) United States Liposomes Market	28
3.3 (II) Canadian Liposomes Market	28
Exhibit 10. List of Major North American Liposomes Companies	28
3.4 European Liposomes Market	30
Exhibit 11. Liposomes – European Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for Germany, United Kingdom, France, Russia and Rest of Europe in US$ Million	30
Exhibit 12. Liposomes – European Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Germany, United Kingdom, France, Russia and Rest of Europe	31
3.4 (I) Germany Liposomes Market	31
3.4 (II) United Kingdom Liposomes Market	31
3.4 (III) French Liposomes Market	31
3.4 (IV) Russian Liposomes Market	31
Exhibit 13. List of Major European Liposomes Companies	32
3.5 Asia-Pacific Liposomes Market	33
Exhibit 14. Liposomes – Asia-Pacific Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for Australia, Japan, China, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific in US$ Million	33
Exhibit 15. Liposomes – Asia-Pacific Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Australia, Japan, China, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific	34
3.5 (I) Australian Liposomes Market	34
3.5 (II) Japanese Liposomes Market	34
3.5 (III) Chinese Liposomes Market	34
3.5 (IV) Indian Liposomes Market	34
3.5 (V) South Korean Liposomes Market	34
Exhibit 16. List of Major Asia-Pacific Liposomes Companies	35
3.6 Rest of World Liposomes Market	36
Exhibit 17. Liposomes – Rest of World Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) by Country for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries in US$ Million	36
Exhibit 18. Liposomes – Rest of World Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Country for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries	37
3.6 (I) Israeli Liposomes Market	37
3.6 (II) Brazilian Liposomes Market	37
3.6 (III) South African Liposomes Market	37
3.7 Company Profiles – Major Players in Liposomes Market	38
Advanced Biomedical Ltd. (United Kingdom)	38
Aradigm Corporation (USA)	40
Arboretum Skincare (USA)	42
Avanti Polar Lipids, Inc. (USA)	43
Azaya Therapeutics, Inc. (USA)	44
BioZone Laboratories, Inc. (USA)	46
Celsion Corporation (USA)	48
Chemi SpA (Italy)	50
Crucell NV (The Netherlands)	51
Encapsula NanoSciences LLC (USA)	52
Evonik Industries AG (Germany)	53
FormuMax Scientific, Inc. (USA)	54
Gilead Sciences, Inc. (USA)	56
GP Pharm (Spain)	57
Guinot (France)	57
Immunovaccine, Inc. (Canada)	58
Insmed, Inc. (USA)	59
Janssen Biotech, Inc. (USA)	59
KOSÉ Corporation (Japan)	60
Kuhs GmbH (Germany)	60
Lifecare Innovations Pvt., Ltd. (India)	61
Lipoid GmbH (Germany)	61
Lipotec SA (Spain)	63
Lippomix, Inc. (USA)	64
Luye Pharma Group Ltd. (China)	65
Marina Biotech, Inc. (USA)	66
Mei Fung International Liposome Limited (Hong Kong)	67
Merck KGaA (Germany)	67
NOF Corporation (Japan)	68
Northern Lipids, Inc. (Canada)	71
NovaLipids, Inc. (Canada)	71
Oncothyreon, Inc. (USA)	72
Orphan Australia Pty Ltd. (Australia)	73
Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (USA)	73
Regulon, Inc. (USA)	75
Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (USA)	75
Silence Therapeutics plc (United Kingdom)	76
Sopherion Therapeutics, LLC (USA)	77
Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Inc.	78
Taiwan Liposome Company, Ltd. (Taiwan)	79
Tekmira Pharmaceuticals Corporation (Canada)	80
Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc. (USA)	81
3.8 Major Activities in Liposomes Market	82
TLC Enters into Feasibility Study Agreement with Ablynx	82
Tekmira’s Anti-Ebola Viral Therapeutic Granted Fast Track Designation	82
TLC Enters into EU and US Collaboration Agreement for Amphotericin B	82
Bio Path Holdings Achieves Major Milestone in Development of Antisense Therapeutics	82
Celsion Corporation and Zhejiang Hisun Pharmaceutical Company Sign Memorandum of Understanding for Future Development of ThermoDox® and Other Liposomal Formulations	83
Azaya Therapeutics Establishes Parexo Labs to Offer Liposomal Production and Nanotechnology Testing Services for Drug and Device Development	83
Bio-Path Holdings Announces Positive Results from Phase I Clinical Trial	83
EPO Granted Key Composition of Matter Patent Allowance for Insmed’s ARIKACE	84
Celsion Issued Additional Patents Encompassing ThermoDox® Technologies	84
Grifols and Aradigm Corporation Enter into Global Licensing Agreement for the Development and Commercialization of Pulmaquin™	85
Medigene Receives Further European Patent on EndoTAG®-1	85
SynCore Partners with Medigene for EndoTAG®-1	85
Azantis Launches Liquid Krill Oil	86
Evonik Birmingham Laboratories Earns cGMP Certification	86
Gilead Sciences Acquires YM Biosciences	87
Celsion Corporation Enters into Technology Development Agreement with Zhejiang Hisun Pharmaceutical Company	87
Treatments for Motor Neuron Disease	87
Telik Receives Orphan Designation of Telintra for Treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndrome	88
Pharmalink Enters into Manufacturing Agreement for Busulipo™	88
BMS Licenses Vical’s DNA Immunization Technology and Vaxfectin Adjuvant for Use in Antibody Production	88
Talon Therapeutics Marqibo® Receives Accelerated Approval by FDA	89
The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society Grants US$5 Million to Celator Pharmaceuticals	89
Celsion Enters into Commercial Supply Agreement with Hisun for ThermoDox®	89
Lubrizol Acquires Lipotec	90
Vical Out - Licenses Vaxfectin Adjuvant to Cyvax	90
Pacira Pharmaceuticals Commercially Launches EXPAREL®	90
QLT Obtains Orphan Drug Designation for Visudyne for Treatment of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy	90
Immunovaccine Inc., in Association with Weill Cornell Medical College Develops Anti-Cocaine Vaccine	91
US Patent Protection for Pulmaquin™ Extended with Issuance of a Composition of Matter Patent	91
Celator Pharmaceuticals Obtains EMA Orphan Drug Status for CPX-351 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)	91
Marina Biotech Signs a License Agreement with Mirna Therapeutics for Enhancing Therapeutics Based upon microRNA	92
Aradigm Confirms PulmaquinTM for Phase 3 Development and Receipt of First U.S. Patent for Inhaled Ciprofloxacin formulations	92
Evonik Takes Over the Assets of SurModics	92
Silence Therapeutics Enters Collaboration with Mirna Therapeutics for the Delivery of Innovative microRNA Therapeutics	93
Teva Acquires Cephalon	93
Pacira Receives Approval of EXPAREL(TM) For Postsurgical Pain Management	93
US Patent to Xenetic Biosciences	94
Talon Therapeutics NDA for Marqibo® Recognized by the FDA	94
FDA Orphan Drug Status to Aradigm’s Ciprofloxacin for inhalation in Bronchiectasis	94
Celator® Pharmaceuticals Issued US Patent for Covering the Lead Cancer Product	94
Centocor Ortho Biotech Renamed as ‘Janssen Biotech’ - Part of Janssen Group of Companies	95
US$100,000 Grant to Lipoxen PLC	95
Marina Biotech Receives Patent for Nucleic Acid Delivery Technology	95
NasVax Enters into a Vaccine Research Agreement with Novartis	95
Japanese Patent Issued to Celsion Corporation for ThermoDox(R) technologies	96
U.S. Patent to Celsion Covering ThermoDox(R) Tecnologies	96
J&J Acquires Crucell	97
Celsion Attains EC Grant of Orphan Drug Designation for ThermoDox(R) Designed for Primary Liver Cancer Treatment	97
Ocudox Convenience Kit – Efficient Therapy for Acute Eyelid Complication	97
Celator® Pharmaceuticals and Cephalon, Inc. Decide to Carry their Agreement Forward to the Next Stage of Development	98
Cephalon and Celator® Pharmaceuticals Extends Research Agreement to the Next Developmental Phase	98
Celsion Inks Agreement with Japanese based Partner Yakult Honsha and Attains Financing and Fast-Track Milestone Payments worth US$ 5 Million	99
Pacira Pharmaceuticals Earns FDA Clearance for EXPAREL™, a New Drug Application for Pain Management	99
Hana Biosciences Renamed as Talon Therapeutics	99
Insmed Completes Acquisition of Transave for “Late-Stage Inhaled Lung Infection Therapy”	99
COMP Recommends the Orphan Drug Status to ThermoDox® Manufactured by Celsion for the Treatment of Primary Liver Cancer	100
Luye Pharma Integrates Nanjing New AIGE Eggs Co., Ltd. and Nanjing Kanghai Phospholipid Bio-tech Co., Ltd	101
Immunovaccine and OncoTherapy Science Enter into Research Agreement for the Enhancement of Potential Cancer Vaccine	101
Aradigm Receives Grants of a Total US$ 733,000	101
Silence Therapeutics’ Research Demonstrates Positive Results with Lead RNA Interference Therapeutic in Avoiding Cancer Spread to Lungs	102
NeoPharm Merges with Insys Therapeutics	102
Affirmative Results to Aradigm in their Phase 2b Bronchiectasis Study with Inhaled Liposomal Ciprofloxacin	102
Immunovaccine Allies with National Research Council for the Evaluation of Carbohydrate-based Vaccine	103
IRX Therapeutics Collaborates with Immunovaccine to Develop Immuno-therapies for Cancer	103
Altogen Biosystems Launches PEG-Liposome siRNA in Vivo Transfection Kit	104
Kadmon Pharmaceuticals Completes Acquisition of Three Rivers Pharmaceuticals	104
SBIR Grant Extended to Celsion for the Expansion and Enhancement of its Technology Platform	105
MediGene Receives US Patent for ENDOTAG™-1	105
Celsion’s ThermoDox® Development Program Nominated as Fast Track Designation Program for the Treatment of Primary Liver Cancer	106
Marina Biotech Issued US Patent that Covers Amphoteric Liposomal siRNA Delivery Technology	106
US Patent Granted to Nasvax Ltd.	106
Luye Pharma Streamlines and Merges Business based In Nanjing, China	106
Novosom AG’s RNA Delivery Assets Acquired by Marina Biotech Inc.	107
Immunovaccine and Oncothyreon Collaborates for Developing Cancer Vaccine	107
Immunovaccine Collaborates with Vaxil BioTherapeutics to Enhance Potential Cancer Vaccine	107
OCuSOFT Inc., Launches New Website	108
Transave Attains US Patent for Arikace™	108
Immunovaccine and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Enter into a Collaborative Research Agreement	109
Tears Again advanced Liposome Spray Launched	109
Lipoxen’s ImuXen for Malaria and Influenza Provides Positive Results	109
CSU Enters into Agreement with Joveis for Developing Cancer Therapeutics Using Proprietary Liposome-Targeting Technology	110
Two US Patents Awarded To YM BioSciences for AeroLEF(R)	110
Silence Therapeutics Merges with Intradigm	111
Sopherion Therapeutics’s Myocet Attains FDA Fast Track Status for Metastatic Breast Cancer	111
Enzon Sells its Specialty Pharmaceuticals Division to Sigma-Tau Group	111
GP-Pharm Establishes New Laboratory for the Discovery of New Pharmaceutical Drugs	111
Immunovaccine Inc., and NCI Enter into a Research Collaboration	112
MediGene Obtains Patent for ENDOTAG™-1 in Europe	112
QLT Modifies Visudyne® Agreement	112
Hana Biosciences and NCI (National Cancer Institute) Enter into Clinical Trial Agreement for the Development of Marqibo® Related to Pediatric Cancer	113
OctoPlus and Axentis Pharma Enter into a Service Contract	113
ImmunoVaccine Technologies Joins Hands with Scancell to Develop DNA Vaccine Delivery	113
Burrill & Company Makes Investments in Taiwan based TLC	114
ImmunoVaccine In-Licenses Immunotope’s Ovarian, Prostate and Breast Cancer Antigens	114
NIAID to Undertake Joint Research Program on ARIKACE™ for NTM lung infections	114
ImmunoVaccine Technologies and FIT Biotech Collaborate to Develop a HIV Therapeutic Vaccine	115
MDRNA and Novartis Signs Licensing Agreement for the Liposomal Technology Platform of MDRNA	115
Brookwood Pharmaceuticals Renamed as SurModics Pharmaceuticals	116
OctoPlus Signs New Contract with Galapagos	116
ImmunoVaccine Technologies Allies with the National Institutes of Health to Discover Vaccines for Malaria and HIV	117
European Patent to Silence Therapeutics on Target for Lead Compound Atu027	117
Celator® Allies with the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society® to Hasten the Development of CPX-351 for AML	117
Merck Buys Stimuvax Vaccine from Oncothyreon	118
Celsion Inks Deal with Yakult Honsha of Japan	118
US FDA Approves PharmaEngine’s Phase II Study of PEPO2 in Pancreatic Cancer (Taiwan)	118
AGI Dermatics Acquired by Estée Lauder	118
Azaya Therapeutics Enters into a Licensing Deal with UTHSC	119
ImmunoVaccine Receives Patent Approval in Japan	119
Doxorubicin Liposome Injection (Doxil) Receives FDA Approval for Application in AIDS-Related Kaposi's Sarcoma	119
Tekmira Pharma Unites with Protiva Biotherapeutics	120
Novosom Receives Patents for RNAi-Delivering Smarticles® in the US and Europe	120
Hana Biosciences Initiates Phase I Clinical Investigations on Alocrest	120
Zydus Cadila Introduces Nudoxa for Cancer Therapy	121
ImmunoVaccine Technologies Signs Licensing Agreements with Pfizer Animal Health for Potential Animal Vaccine Usage	121
PROTIVA Licenses SNALP to Merck	122
Merck KGaA and Biomira revise their collaboration terms related to supply of Stimuvax (R)	122
FDA Grants Fast Track Status to Dimericine® to Treat Photosensitivity in XP Patients	122
Kirin Collaborates with Terumo	123
VELCADE® and DOXIL® Approved by FDA as a Combination Treatment for Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma	123
Alnylam Pharmaceuticals undertakes to further develop AL-VSP01, a liposome based RNAi delivery product, for treating solid tumors and liver cancer	124
DUnited Kingdome University Discovers a New Class of Liposomes Capable of Drug Delivery on Heating, and Visible in Live Samples with MRI	124
FDA Grants Orphan Drug Status to Liposomal Doxorubicin of GP-Pharm	125
Liposomal Ciprofloxacin of Aradigm Granted Orphan Drug Status for Bronchiectasis	125
SRI International Enters into Contract with Taiwan Liposome Company for Preclinical Investigations of a New Atineoplastic Drug Developed by TLC	126
Terumo and Yakult Introduces Liposomal Formulation Use in an Anticancer Therapy	126
Biomira Buys ProIX Pharmaceuticals Corporation	126
Hana Biosciences Receives License to Use Three-Targeted Atineoplastic Drug Candidates Developed by Inex Pharmaceuticals	127
BioZone and Corwood Enter into Strategic Partnership for Introduction of QuSomes®	128
3.9 Liposomes - Analysis by Application	129
Analysis by Application	129
Exhibit 19. Liposomal Applications – Global Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for Therapeutics, Cosmetics and Other in US$ Million	129
Exhibit 20. Liposomal Applications – Global Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Therapeutics, Cosmetics and Other	130
3.9.1 Therapeutics	131
3.9.1.1 Global Liposomal Therapeutics Market	131
Analysis by Application	131
Exhibit 21. Liposomal Therapeutics - Global Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World in US$ Million	132
Exhibit 22. Liposomal Therapeutics – Global Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World	133
Exhibit 23. List of Major Global Liposomal Therapeutic Companies	133
3.9.1.2 North American Liposomal Therapeutics Market	135
Exhibit 24. Liposomal Therapeutics – North American Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for United States and Canada in US$ Million	135
Exhibit 25. Liposomal Therapeutics – North American Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for United States and Canada	136
3.9.1.2 (I) US Liposomal Therapeutics Market	136
3.9.1.2 (II) Canadian Liposomal Therapeutics Market	136
3.9.1.3 European Liposomal Therapeutics Market	137
Exhibit 26. Liposomal Therapeutics – European Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for Germany, United Kingdom, France, Russia and Rest of Europe in US$ Million	137
Exhibit 27. Liposomal Therapeutics – European Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Germany, United Kingdom, France, Russia and Rest of Europe	138
3.9.1.3 (I) Germany Liposomal Therapeutics Market	138
3.9.1.3 (II) United Kingdom Liposomal Therapeutics Market	138
3.9.1.3 (III) French Liposomal Therapeutics Market	138
3.9.1.3 (IV) Russian Liposomal Therapeutics Market	138
3.9.1.4 Asia-Pacific Liposomal Therapeutics Market	139
Exhibit 28. Liposomal Therapeutics – Asia-Pacific Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for Australia, Japan, China, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific in US$ Million	139
Exhibit 29. Liposomal Therapeutics – Asia-Pacific Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Australia, Japan, China, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific	140
3.9.1.4 (I) Australian Liposomal Therapeutics Market	140
3.9.1.4 (II) Japanese Liposomal Therapeutics Market	140
3.9.1.4 (III) Chinese Liposomal Therapeutics Market	140
3.9.1.4 (IV) Indian Liposomal Therapeutics Market	140
3.9.1.4 (V) South Korean Liposomal Therapeutics Market	140
3.9.1.5 Rest of World Liposomal Therapeutics Market	141
Exhibit 30. Liposomal Therapeutics – Rest of World Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) by Country for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries in US$ Million	141
Exhibit 31. Liposomal Therapeutics – Rest of World Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Country for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries	142
3.9.1.5 (I) Israeli Liposomal Therapeutics Market	142
3.9.1.5 (II) Brazilian Liposomal Therapeutics Market	142
3.9.1.5 (III) South African Liposomal Therapeutics Market	142
3.9.2 Cosmetics	143
3.9.2.1 Global Liposomal Cosmetics Market	143
Exhibit 32. Liposomal Cosmetics - Global Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World in US$ Million	143
Exhibit 33. Liposomal Cosmetics – Global Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World	144
Exhibit 34. List of Major Global Liposomal Cosmetic Companies	144
3.9.2.2 North American Liposomal Cosmetics Market	145
Exhibit 35. Liposomal Cosmetics – North American Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for United States and Canada in US$ Million	145
Exhibit 36. Liposomal Cosmetics – North American Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for United States and Canada	146
3.9.2.2 (I) US Liposomal Cosmetics Market	146
3.9.2.2 (II) Canadian Liposomal Cosmetics Market	146
3.9.2.3 European Liposomal Cosmetics Market	147
Exhibit 37. Liposomal Cosmetics – European Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for Germany, United Kingdom, France, Russia and Rest of Europe in US$ Million	147
Exhibit 38. Liposomal Cosmetics – European Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Germany, United Kingdom, France, Russia and Rest of Europe	148
3.9.2.3 (I) Germany Liposomal Cosmetics Market	148
3.9.2.3 (II) United Kingdom Liposomal Cosmetics Market	148
3.9.2.3 (III) French Liposomal Cosmetics Market	148
3.9.2.3 (IV) Russian Liposomal Cosmetics Market	148
3.9.2.4 Asia-Pacific Liposomal Cosmetics Market	149
Exhibit 39. Liposomal Cosmetics – Asia-Pacific Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for Australia, Japan, China, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific in US$ Million	149
Exhibit 40. Liposomal Cosmetics – Asia-Pacific Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Australia, Japan, China, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific	150
3.9.2.4 (I) Australian Liposomal Cosmetics Market	150
3.9.2.4 (II) Japanese Liposomal Cosmetics Market	150
3.9.2.4 (III) Chinese Liposomal Cosmetics Market	150
3.9.2.4 (IV) Indian Liposomal Cosmetics Market	150
3.9.2.4 (V) South Korean Liposomal Cosmetics Market	150
3.9.2.5 Rest of World Liposomal Cosmetics Market	151
Exhibit 41. Liposomal Cosmetics – Rest of World Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) by Country for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries in US$ Million	151
Exhibit 42. Liposomal Cosmetics – Asia-Pacific Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Country for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries	152
3.9.2.5 (I) Israeli Liposomal Cosmetics Market	152
3.9.2.5 (II) Brazilian Liposomal Cosmetics Market	152
3.9.2.5 (III) South African Liposomal Cosmetics Market	152
3.9.3 Other Applications	153
3.9.3.1 Global Other Liposomal Applications Market	153
Exhibit 43. Other Liposomal Applications - Global Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World in US$ Million	153
Exhibit 44. Other Liposomal Applications – Global Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World	154
3.9.3.2 North American Other Liposomal Applications Market	155
Exhibit 45. Other Liposomal Applications – North American Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for United States and Canada in US$ Million	155
Exhibit 46. Other Liposomal Applications – North American Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for United States and Canada	156
3.9.3.3 European Other Liposomal Applications Market	157
Exhibit 47. Other Liposomal Applications – European Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for Germany, United Kingdom, France, Russia and Rest of Europe in US$ Million	157
Exhibit 48. Other Liposomal Applications – European Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Germany, United Kingdom, France, Russia and Rest of Europe	158
3.9.3.4 Asia-Pacific Other Liposomal Applications Market	159
Exhibit 49. Other Liposomal Applications – Asia-Pacific Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for Australia, Japan, China, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific in US$ Million	159
Exhibit 50. Other Liposomal Applications – Asia-Pacific Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Australia, Japan, China, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific	160
3.9.3.5 Rest of World Other Liposomal Applications Market	161
Exhibit 51. Other Liposomal Applications – Rest of World Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) by Country for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries in US$ Million	161
Exhibit 52. Other Liposomal Applications – Rest of World Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Country for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries	162
3.10 Liposomes - Analysis by Therapeutic Area	163
Exhibit 53. Liposomal Therapeutics – Global Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for Antifungal, Anticancer, Ophthalmic and Other in US$ Million	163
Exhibit 54. Liposomal Therapeutics – Global Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Antifungal, Anticancer, Ophthalmic and Other	164
3.10.1 Antifungal	165
3.10.1.1 Global Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	165
Exhibit 55. Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics - Global Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World in US$ Million	165
Exhibit 56. Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics – Global Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World	166
Exhibit 57. List of Major Global Liposomal Antifungal Companies	166
3.10.1.2 North American Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	167
Exhibit 58. Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics – North American Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for United States and Canada in US$ Million	167
Exhibit 59. Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics – North American Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for United States and Canada	168
3.10.1.2 (I) US Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	168
3.10.1.2 (II) Canadian Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	168
3.10.1.3 European Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	169
Exhibit 60. Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics – European Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for Germany, United Kingdom, France, Russia and Rest of Europe in US$ Million	169
Exhibit 61. Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics – European Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Germany, United Kingdom, France, Russia and Rest of Europe	170
3.10.1.3 (I) Germany Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	170
3.10.1.3 (II) United Kingdom Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	170
3.10.1.3 (III) French Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	170
3.10.1.3 (IV) Russian Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	170
3.10.1.4 Asia-Pacific Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	171
Exhibit 62. Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics – Asia-Pacific Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for Australia, Japan, China, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific in US$ Million	171
Exhibit 63. Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics – Asia-Pacific Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Australia, Japan, China, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific	172
3.10.1.4 (I) Australian Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	172
3.10.1.4 (II) Japanese Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	172
3.10.1.4 (III) Chinese Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	172
3.10.1.4 (IV) Indian Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	172
3.10.1.4 (V) South Korean Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	172
3.10.1.5 Rest of World Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	173
Exhibit 64. Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics – Rest of World Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) by Country for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries in US$ Million	173
Exhibit 65. Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics – Rest of World Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Country for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries	174
3.10.1.5 (I) Israeli Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	174
3.10.1.5 (III) Brazilian Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	174
Brazil is projected to be the second fastest CAGR of 16.81% during the period 2005-2020. Brazilian Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics market was estimated at US$41.89 million in 2012 is projected to reach US$145.47 million by 2020.	174
3.10.1.5 (II) South African Liposomal Antifungal Therapeutics Market	174
3.10.2 Anticancer	175
3.10.2.1 Global Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	175
Exhibit 66. Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics - Global Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World in US$ Million	175
Exhibit 67. Liposomal Anticancer Drugs – Global Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World	176
Exhibit 68. List of Major Global Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutic Companies	176
3.10.2.2 North American Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	177
Exhibit 69. Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics – North American Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for United States and Canada in US$ Million	177
Exhibit 70. Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics – North American Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for United States and Canada	178
3.10.2.2 (I) US Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	178
3.10.2.2 (II) Canadian Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	178
3.10.2.3 European Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	179
Exhibit 71. Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics – European Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for Germany, United Kingdom, France, Russia and Rest of Europe in US$ Million	179
Exhibit 72. Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics – European Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Germany, United Kingdom, France, Russia and Rest of Europe	180
3.10.2.3 (I) Germany Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	180
3.10.2.3 (II) United Kingdom Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	180
3.10.2.3 (III) French Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	180
3.10.2.3 (IV) Russian Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	180
3.10.2.4 Asia-Pacific Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	181
Exhibit 73. Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics – Asia-Pacific Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for Australia, Japan, China, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific in US$ Million	181
Exhibit 74. Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics – Asia-Pacific Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Australia, Japan, China, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific	182
3.10.2.4 (I) Australian Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	182
3.10.2.4 (II) Japanese Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	182
3.10.2.4 (III) Chinese Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	182
3.10.2.4 (IV) Indian Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	182
3.10.2.4 (V) South Korean Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	182
3.10.2.5 Rest of World Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	183
Exhibit 75. Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics – Rest of World Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) by Country for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries in US$ Million	183
Exhibit 76. Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics – Rest of World Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Australia, Japan, China, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific	184
3.10.2.5 (I) Israeli Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	184
3.10.2.5 (II) Brazilian Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	184
3.10.2.5 (III) South African Liposomal Anticancer Therapeutics Market	184
3.10.3 Opthalmic	185
3.10.3.1 Global Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	185
Exhibit 77. Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics - Global Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World in US$ Million	185
Exhibit 78. Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics – Global Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World	186
Exhibit 79. List of Major Global Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutic Companies	186
3.10.3.2 North American Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	187
Exhibit 80. Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics – North American Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for United States and Canada in US$ Million	187
Exhibit 81. Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics – North American Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for United States and Canada	188
3.10.3.2 (I) US Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	188
3.10.3.2 (II) Canadian Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	188
3.10.3.3 European Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	189
Exhibit 82. Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics – European Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for Germany, United Kingdom, France, Russia and Rest of Europe in US$ Million	189
Exhibit 83. Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics – European Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Germany, United Kingdom, France, Russia and Rest of Europe	190
3.10.3.3 (I) Germany Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	190
3.10.3.3 (II) United Kingdom Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	190
3.10.3.3 (III) French Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	190
3.10.3.3 (IV) Russian Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	190
3.10.3.4 Asia-Pacific Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	191
Exhibit 84. Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics – Asia-Pacific Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for Australia, Japan, China, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific in US$ Million	191
Exhibit 85. Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics – Asia-Pacific Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Australia, Japan, China, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific	192
3.10.3.4 (I) Australian Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	192
3.10.3.4 (II) Japanese Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	192
3.10.3.4 (III) Chinese Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	192
3.10.3.4 (IV) Indian Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	192
3.10.3.4 (V) South Korean Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	192
3.10.3.5 Rest of World Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	193
Exhibit 86. Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics – Rest of World Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) by Country for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries in US$ Million	193
Exhibit 87. Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics – Rest of World Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Country for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries	194
3.10.3.5 (I) Israeli Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	194
3.10.3.5 (II) Brazilian Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	194
3.10.3.5 (III) South African Liposomal Ophthalmic Therapeutics Market	194
3.10.4 Other Therapeutic Applications	195
3.10.4.1 Global Market for Other Liposomal Therapeutics	195
Exhibit 88. Other Liposomal Therapeutics - Global Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World in US$ Million	195
Exhibit 89. Other Liposomal Therapeutics – Global Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of World	196
3.10.1.2 North American Market for Other Liposomal Therapeutics	197
Exhibit 90. Other Liposomal Therapeutics – North American Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for United States and Canada in US$ Million	197
Exhibit 91. Other Liposomal Therapeutics – North American Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for United States and Canada	198
3.10.4.3 European Market for Other Liposomal Therapeutics	199
Exhibit 92. Other Liposomal Therapeutics – European Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for Germany, United Kingdom, France, Russia and Rest of Europe in US$ Million	199
Exhibit 93. Other Liposomal Therapeutics – European Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Germany, United Kingdom, France, Russia and Rest of Europe	200
3.10.4.4 Asia-Pacific Market for Other Liposomal Therapeutics	201
Exhibit 94. Other Liposomal Therapeutics – Asia-Pacific Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) for Australia, Japan, China, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific in US$ Million	201
Exhibit 95. Other Liposomal Therapeutics – Asia-Pacific Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) for Australia, Japan, China, India, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific	202
3.10.4.5 Rest of World Market for Other Liposomal Therapeutics	203
Exhibit 96. Other Liposomal Therapeutics – Rest of World Market Estimations and Predictions (2005-2020) by Country for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries in US$ Million	203
Exhibit 97. Other Liposomal Therapeutics – Rest of World Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Country for Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries	204
3.11 Liposomes – Market Outlook	205
4. PRODUCT/TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH	207
4.1 Introduction	207
Liposomes	207
Forms of Liposomes	208
Stealth Liposomes	208
Novel Liposomes	209
Magnetic Liposomes	210
Cytoskeleton-Specific Immunoliposomes	211
Liposomal Hemoglobin	211
ATP Liposome	212
Classification	213
Applications of Size and Zeta Potential	213
Properties	214
Liposomes in Drug Delivery	215
Factors Affecting Stability of Liposomes	217
Liposome – Constitution, Activities and Improvements	218
C-Terminal Substitution of Amino Acids / Peptides	218
Features of N-linked Glycosylation	219
Role of Ligands in Liposome Therapy	219
Techniques for Forming Stable Liposomes	220
Liposome- Understanding Various Effects on Liposomal Membrane	220
Effects of Bilayer Lipid Membrane (BLM) Stretch on N-Methyl-D- Aspartate (NMDA)	220
Effects of Fusion Process on Liposomes Membrane	220
Effects of Stimuli Receptive, Protein & Polymer on Liposome Membranes:	221
Effects of Melittin-Induced Membrane Fusion on Liposome Membranes:	221
Pharmacokinetics – Liposomes Role	222
Michaelis-Menten Equation	222
Various Factors Affecting the Liposome Pharmacokinetics	223
Size of Liposome	223
Dosage of Liposome Lipid	223
Composition of Liposome	224
Measurement of Liposomes	225
DLS technique of Analyzing Liposome Size	225
Factors Associated with Liposome Measurement	225
Liposome - Preparation Process	226
Convectional Process	226
Merits and Demerits of Conventional Liposomes	227
Sonication Process	228
The High-Pressure Extrusion Process	229
The Solubilisation and Detergent Removal Process	229
Homogenization	230
Reverse Phase Evaporation Method	230
Unilamellar Liposomal Vesicles Production using Highly Active Ingredients	230
Lyophilization Process	231
Lyophilization of Double Emulsions	231
Lyophilization of Monophase Solution	231
Producing Liposomes using Spray-Drying Technique	231
Salient Features of a Commercially Available Liposome Spray	232
Superficial Reverse Phase Evaporation Process using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide	232
Advantages and Disadvantages	232
Advantages of Liposomes	232
Advantages of Liposomes in Pharmaceutical Industry	233
Advantages of Liposomes in Food Industry	233
Disadvantages of Liposomes	233
Uses	234
Versatility of Liposome Nanovesicles is Possible Because of Two Important Features of the Nanovesicles	234
Use of Liposomes in Bioanalysis	234
Lateral Flow	235
Electrochemical Assay Formats	235
Liposomes and Hydrophilic, Amphiphilic and Lipophilic Substances	235
Benefits of Using Liposomes in Skincare Products	235
Use of Applied Phospholipids in Food and Cosmetics	236
Use of Lipid Liposomes as Carriers for Delivery of Oral Vaccines	236
Liposomes in Medicine	236
Uses of Liposomal Drug Delivery Systems	237
Injectable-Drug Delivery Systems	237
Use of Liposomes Containing Carbohydrates for Production of Monoclonal Antibodies	238
Therapeutic Uses of Antioxidant Liposomes	238
Use of Phospholipid Bilayers and Monolayers in Binding Studies of Vitamin K-Dependent Blood Coagulation Proteins	239
4.2 Application Area	240
Therapeutics	240
Various Diseases - Role of Liposomes	240
Exhibit 98. List of Liposome based Drugs in Clinical Trials	241
Targeted Liposomal Drug Delivery to Monocytes and Macrophages	244
Anti Fungal	245
Liposomal Amphotericin B Availed In Bone Marrow Transplant	245
Anti Fungal Drugs	247
Abelcet	247
Liposomal Amphotericin B	247
Anticancer	248
Liposomal Drug Delivery -- Hyperthermia Mediated	249
Liposomes That Are Tumor-Targeted Make Clinical Headway	249
Cancer and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy	252
Ovarian Cancer and Liposomal Doxorubicin	252
Cancer Treatment with Cisplatin Encapsulated Nanoliposomes	252
Brain Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment Using Nanomedicine	253
Anti-PSMA-Liposome-Complex in Cancer Therapy	253
Photodynamic Therapy to Treat Tumor	253
Application of Liposome/Anthraquinone Drug Composition in Treatment of Neoplasm Cases	254
Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin in Treating a Case of Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Severe Hepatic Dysfunction and Pharmacokinetic Study	254
New Generation Liposomes for Cancer Therapy	255
Anti Cancer Drugs	259
Liposomal Doxorubicin	259
Doxorubicin	260
Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin	261
DaunoXome	262
DepoCyt	262
Lipusu	263
Ophthalmic	263
Application of Liposomes in Ophthalmic Drug Delivery	263
Other Therapeutic Applications of Liposomes	264
Vaccines	264
Influenza	265
Inflexal V	265
Liposomal Influenza Vaccine or INFLUSOME-VAC	265
Hepatitis	265
Liposomal Hepatitis A Vaccine and Liposomal Multiantigen Combination Vaccines	265
Epaxal	266
Antiparasitics	266
Liposomes as Remedy for Malaria	266
Liposomal Formulation for Control of Parasitemia and Safeguard from Plasmodium berghei	267
Liposome Carriers in Chemotherapy of Leishmaniasis	267
Cardiovascular Diseases	267
Cerebral Ischemia and Stroke	268
Dermatology	268
Analgesics	268
Dispatch of Vesicle in Dental Treatment	269
Treatment of Inflammation by Applying Targeted Therapy Using Liposomes	269
Use of Liposome Delivery System to Convey Drugs to Sites of Inflammation	270
Application of Liposomes in Treatment of Pulmonary Disorders	270
Liposomes in AIDS Therapy	271
Liposome – A Immunological Adjuvant	272
Liposomes and Immunoassays	272
Cosmetics	273
Natural Liposomes	274
Liposomes as Carriers in Cosmetics	275
Chemical Composition and Physiochemical Characteristics of Liposomes Conducive for Skin Care and Treatment	276
Liposome as a Cleaning Composition –Facial Cleanser	277
Other Applications	277
Agro Food	277
Liposomal Formulations in Agricultural Pesticides	278
Liposome-Encapsulated Enzyme Accelerates Ripening of Cheese	278
Textile Industry	279
Technological Innovation on Textile Dyeing using Liposomes	279
Dyeing of Wool with Madder and Liposomes	279
Neutraceuticals	281
Diagnostics	282
Liposome as an Imaging Tool	282
Liposomes Used For Radiopharmaceuticals	282
Use of Liposome-Mediated Radiotherapeutics Inside Avascular Tumor Spheroids	283
Tracer Dose of Technetium-99m-Labeled Liposome and the Estimation of the Effect of Hyperthermia on Intratumoral Doxil Extravasation	283
Targeting of Radiopharmaceuticals to Tumor with the use of Liposomes as Carrier	284
Use of Liposomes as Contrast Agents for Ultrasonic Imaging	284
Temperature Sensitive Liposomes for Local Drug Delivery Utilizing Focused Ultrasound	284
Liposomes Used as Contrast Agents for Ultrasonic Imaging	285
Gas Filled Liposomes Used as Ultrasonic Contrast Agents	285
Liposomes that are 99m Tc Labeled	285
The Heated Liposome Drug Delivery - Effects Visualised In Vivo through Magnetic Resonance Imaging	286
Ultrasound-Guided Liposomes Assist Imaging, Target Drug/Gene Therapy	286
Liposomes in Genetic Engineering	287
Application of Phospholipid Liposomes in Healing Post Menopausal Mood Disorders	288
Potential of Immunocontraception Especially in Coyote Management	289
Other Applications	289
Future Trends and Applications	289
Plant-Based Substances for Skin Care	289
Using Plants Possessing another Type of Characteristics for Restraining Tyrosinase	290
4.3 Government Regulations	291
United States	291
Guidance for Industry Liposome Drug Products	291
Introduction	291
II. CHEMISTRY, MANUFACTURING, AND CONTROLS	291
A. Description and Composition	291
B. Physicochemical Properties	292
C. Description of Manufacturing Process and Process Controls	292
D. Control of Excipients: Lipid Components	292
1. Description and Characterization	293
2. Manufacture	293
3. Specifications	293
4. Stability	294
E. Control of Drug Product: Specifications	294
F. Stability	294
G. Changes in Manufacturing	294
III. HUMAN PHARMACOKINETICS AND BIOAVAILABILITY	295
A. Bioanalytical Methods	295
B. In Vivo Integrity (Stability) Considerations	295
C. Protein Binding	296
D. In Vitro Stability	296
E. Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability	296
1. Mass Balance Study	296
2. Pharmacokinetic Studies	297
3. Additional Pharmacokinetic Studies	297
a. Food-Effect Studies	297
b. Drug Interactions and/or Special Populations	297
c. Exposure-Response Studies	298
IV. LABELING	298
A. Product Name	298
B. Cautionary Notes and Warnings	298
C. Dosage and Administration	298
United Kingdom	299
Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP), European Medicines Agencies (EMA)	299
2.1 Pharmaceutical Quality	299
Quality Characterisation	299
Establishing pharmaceutical comparability	300
Pharmaceutical Development of the Applicant’s Product	301
2.2 Non-Clinical and Clinical Requirements	301
General Aspects	301
2.2.1 Non-Clinical Studies	301
Non-clinical pharmacokinetic studies	301
Non-clinical pharmacodynamic studies	301
Toxicological studies	302
2.2.2 Clinical Studies	302
Comparative pharmacokinetic studies	302
General considerations	302
Dose to be investigated	302
Design considerations	302
Analytes to be measured	303
Pharmacokinetic parameters to be measured and reported	303
Acceptance criteria	303
Assessment of efficacy	303
Safety issues	303
4.4 Liposomes - Research Briefs	304
Weak Chemical Forces Joined to Strengthen the New Imaging Technology	304
Capillary Equipment Greatly Enhances the Production of Quality Liposomes	305
Injecting Drugs into Cancer Cells Before Stimulating its Release	306
Staurosporine Effectively provided in Liposomes	306
Hurdles in Developing Prolonged, Single –Injection Nerve Blocks	307
Sheep Mucosa Demonstrates the Way to Better Medication for Neurological Diseases	308
Research Suggests that Local Chemotherapy is Better in Decreasing the Growth of Tumors	309
Nanoteched RNA Drug Decreases the Occurrence of Ovarian Cancer Tumors	310
Nanomedicine: Regulated and Targeted Release of Drugs	312
Tiny Spheres Filled with Anesthetic Obtained from Shell Fish Toxin	313
Liposomal Cisplatin is Sensitive to pH and Enhances Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Therapy	314
Mass Production of Lipid Powder Containing Liposomes and Encapsulating Material	315
Liposomes as Conveyors of Drugs In the Treatment of Allergic Diseases	315
Process for Producing Proteoliposomes	315
Inactivated Tissue Plasminogen Activator to Target Echogenic Liposomes	316
Experimental Design to Optimize Formulation Variables of Benzocaine Liposomes	316
Effect of Drug-to-Lipid on Drug Release and Effect of Liposome Integrity in Liposomal Doxorubicin Formulations	317
Efficiency of Epidermal Growth Factor Encapsulated in Dehydration Rehydration Vesicles of Different Phospholipid Composition	317
Formulation of a Liposome for the Local Distribution of D-cycloserine	318
Liposome Entrapment of Ovalbumin	318
Anti-PEG IgM Enhance the Clearance of Second Dose of PEGylated Liposomes in Blood	319
Animal Models of Complement-Mediated Hypersensitivity Reactions to Liposomes and other Nanoparticles which are Lipid Based	319
Phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) Role in the Delivery of siRNA	321
"Smart" Drug Carriers	321
Role of Remote Controlled Valve in Liposomes	322
Effectiveness of Ascorbyl Palmitate Encapsulated in Freeze-Dried Liposomes	322
Increased Blood Clearance of PEGylated Liposomes Upon Repeated Injections: The Outcome of Doxorubicin-Encapsulation and High-dose first Injection	322
PEG-specific IgM Rapidly Eliminates the second dose of PEGylated Liposomes	323
Process of Obtaining Liposomes from Membrane of Milk Fat Globule Using Microfluidizer	324
Liposomal Delivery Systems for Encapsulating Ferrous Sulfate: Preparation and Characterization	324
Pros and Cons of the Liposome Platform in the Targeting of Cancer Drugs	325
Advanced Liposomal Vectors used as Cancer Vaccines in Melanoma Immunotherapy	326
Liposomes and Liposome-like Vesicles for Drug Delivery and DNA Delivery to Mitochondria	326
Efficient Preparation of Liposomes Encapsulating Food Materials Using Lecithins by a Mechanochemical Method	328
ABC Phenomenon & the First-dose Liposomes’ Effects and PEG surface-density & Chain Length	328
Producing Liposomes Capable of Encapsulating Chitosan Nanoparticles and Their Behavior	328
Enhanced Heparin Sulfate Proteoglycan-mediated Uptake of Cell-penetrating Peptide-Modified Liposomes.	329
Wool Interaction In Wool Dyeing -- Physicochemical Aspects of The Liposome	329
Small Interfering RNA/Cationic Liposome Complex -- Antitumor Activity – Using Mouse Models of Cancer	330
A Historical Review on the Liposomal Polyene Antibiotics’ Development	330
From Traditional to Stealth Liposomes: The New Edge in Cancer Chemotherapy.	330
Circulation and Distribution Pattern of PEG-Liposomes of Varying Sizes in Rabbit Model	331
Role of Liposomes as Protein Carriers in Immunology	332
Entrapped Benzyl Nicotinate as Quantified by EPR (enhanced permeability and retention) Oximetry in Vivo --Skin Oxygenation after Topical Application of Liposome	332
Cationic Liposomes -- Delivery Systems For Double-Stranded PNA–DNA Chimeras Displaying Decoy Activity Against NF-ΚB Transcription Factors	332
Use of Liposomes for the Study of Sphingolipid Segregation in Membrane Model Systems	333
Preparation and Characterization of Glycolipid-Bearing Multilamellar and Unilamellar Liposomes	333
Liposomes which Contain Polyethyleneglycol-coupled with Transferrin with Intracellular Targeting Property to the Solid tumors in Vivo	334
A study on Desmopressin Including Liposomes for Intranasal Delivery	334
Cationic Liposome-Mediated Gene Delivery to the Liver and to Hepatocellular Carcinomas in Mouse Models	335
Mannosylated, Fucosylated, and Galactosylated Liposomes’ Biodistribution Characteristics Analyzed in Mice	335
Delivery of Contrast Agents for Positron Emission Tomography Imaging by Liposomes	336
Enhancing Intravascular and Transvascular Ultrasound Image by In Vivo Targeting of Acoustically Reflective Liposomes	336
Treating Breast Cancer with the Method of Gene Therapy Involves	337
Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy to Understand Reactions between Human Skin and Liposomes Under Laboratory Conditions – A Plastic Surgery Investigation	337
Nucleic Acids Encapsulation in Liposomes	338
Producing Liposomes for Encapsulating Tumor Necrosis Factor, and Studying their Behavior	338
Preparation of Giant Liposomes in Physiological Conditions and their Characterization Under an Optical Microscope	339
The Outcome of Sterical Stabilization on Macrophage Uptake in Vitro and on Thickness of the Fixed Aqueous layer of Liposomes Made From Alkylphosphocholines	339
The Mechanism of the Release of Oligonucleotide from Cationic Liposomes	340
Viability of Alginate Gel as a Medium for Liposomes	341
Collagen Sponge’s Anti-Pseudomonal Reaction with Liposome Encapsulated Polymyxin B – a Plastic Surgery Research	341
Anti-pl85HER2 ImmunoLiposomes and Targeted Gene Therapy	341
A study using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy finds that Hydrophilic Agents Exhibit Greater Levels of Skin Penetration whether they are Encapsulated in Liposomes or Present in Non-Encapsulated form with Liposomes	342
Interactions of Phospholipid Membranes (Liposomes) with Antisense DNA Oligonucleotide Analogs	343
Designing of Thermosensitive Liposomes from Natural Lipids for Multimodality Cancer Therapy	344
Controlling Reproduction in Coyotes Through Immunocontraception	344
Use Of Liposomes In Optimization And Characterization of Freeze-Dried Multilamellar Liposomes And Treating Various Allergens Extracts	345
The Size of the Liposomes Decide their Uptake by Liver	346
Process for Producing Liposome and Lipid Complex Formulations	346
Plasmid DNA Distribution into Mammalian Cell Lines Through pH-sensitive Liposomes Following Comparison with Cationic Liposomes	346
Association Between the Protein Bound Liposome with their Duration of Circulation	347
Synthetic Lipid Derivatives of PEG bound Liposomes Display Prolonged Circulation Half-Lives In Vivo	347
Liposomes Used For the Preparation of Protein-Free Lipid Emulsions Models of Chylomicron Remnants	348
A Simple Method for the Preparation of Liposomes for Pharmaceutical Applications: Characterization of the Liposomes	348
Liposomes Endocytosis by Macrophages, the New Fluorescence Assay Technique for Monitoring of Rapid Binding, Acidification and Leakage of Liposomes	349
V. CORPORATE DIRECTORY	350
VI. PATENTS INFORMATION	375

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