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LiDAR for Cars and Light Trucks: Market Shares, Strategies, and Forecasts, Worldwide, 2017 to 2023

Published: Aug, 2017 | Pages: 566 | Publisher: WinterGreen Research
Industry: Automotive | Report Format: Electronic (PDF)

Worldwide markets are poised to achieve significant growth as LiDAR sensors for cars and light trucks permit users to implement automated driving.  Fleet vehicles from Uber, Google and similar users are likely to be the early adopter groups, creating vehicles that do package delivery and ride sharing.  Tesla, Mercedes, and Audi are among the vendors with a leadership position in the personal luxury vehicle artificial intelligence LiDAR car markets.  These cars provide performance and cater to individual preference in feature function packages and styling.

LIDAR stands for light detection and ranging which is remote sensing. LIDAR does not require electromagnetic radiation but it requires laser pulses that strike the object and return back to the sensor.   The laser pulse measures the distance from the sensor to the object by determining the time between the release to reception of the reflected pulse.

3D scanning market and imaging are expected to propel growth.  Major technological developments include emergence of optically extended MEMS scanning mirror for low-altitude and light weight flying platforms.  Long term reliability of number of key laser components drive the LiDAR market.  Key components include optical coatings, optics, and diodes in vacuum and radiation environment of space.  

Every car maker seeks to participate in this Artificial Intelligence (AI) personal vehicle market leveraging LiDAR.   The ability to do so depends on implementing next generation technology that is very expensive to get working.  Vendors ae seeking to work together to set standards and develop shared modules that provide basic functionality.  Cameras, sensors, artificial intelligence software, and LiDAR are among the modules being developed.

Autonomous vehicle technology has the potential to institute major change in personal mobility.  Autonomous cars are the next generation of manual cars, poised to provide thrust for a large replacement market.  Autonomous vehicles are the base for building personal car services, particularly in large cities.  Carmakers and Silicon Valley companies bring different skills to the task of building a Artificial Intelligence (AI) car.  LiDAR is a significant sensor that supports autonomous operations.  Autonomous vehicles transform the personal transport industry.  

Every person who owns a vehicle has a preference on performance.   The Tesla has gained recognition for offering a Artificial Intelligence (AI) vehicle, but it is first and foremost a performance vehicle.  This characteristic will not change as Artificial Intelligence (AI) vehicles come on the market.  People like the customization of features and functions in their car.

This customization aspect of vehicles does not get talked about much, but it is a very important part of the industry.  It will not go away just because cars are run by software.   From auto racing to personal preference, ever car has its own personality and its own comfort.  Performance is part of the package.  Every car maker seeks to participate in this Artificial Intelligence (AI) personal vehicle market with a distinctive offering.  The ability to have unique appear to customers depends on implementing next generation technology in a manner that works effectively and is relatively inexpensive to implement.  

As automated process leveraging LiDAR hits the auto industry as a disruptive force, it parallels the automated piloting of the airline industry that saw significant labor savings implementation.  Automated vehicle driving can be done anywhere just by connecting the car to integrated adaptive cruise control, adaptive steering and braking, and lane assist systems all working off one central processor.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) cars and light trucks incrementally add automated process to driving leveraging the LiDAR sensor.  As software is added to cars and light trucks it is done in concert with modification to the steering, breaking, and other automotive systems.  Autonomous functions for vehicles are increasingly adopted.  

Change is incremental, we do not have fully functioning LiDAR navigated Artificial Intelligence (AI) cars immediately, rather, steering, collision avoidance, parking, test driving, series of camera and radar based monitoring systems, lane assist, and adaptive cruise control are being implemented, presaging rapid adoption of Artificial Intelligence (AI) cars and light trucks as the various functions mature and work in the real world. 

According to Susan Eustis, team leader for the preparation of the study, “The market for LiDAR for cars and light truck vehicles is anticipated to expand in parallel with the deployment of appropriate roadway controls funded by government programs.  The large public investments for Artificial Intelligence (AI) vehicles so far has been for development of technology that works for military purposes.  The extension of this type of automated system to commercial fleet vehicles will be rapid after 2019.”

The Artificial Intelligence (AI) car designs amalgamate a group of features to represent an automated process solution.  These include the hardware, the software middleware, the steering system, adaptive cruise control, numerous software applications, an integrated systems approach, and related services.  Significant investments in research and development are necessary as the emerging Artificial Intelligence (AI) cars and light trucks industry builds on incremental technology roll outs.   

LiDAR for autonomous autos and small trucks /SUVs market at $13 million in 2016 is expected to reach $9.9 billion by 2023.  This is in the context of a $3 trillion market for the autonomous vehicles.  LiDAR represents one sensor in the autonomous navigation system.   It is used to give more reliability than is available from cameras and other sensors and it compliments those capabilities.  Spectacular growth is a result of various moves toward autonomous vehicles that can go across the US by themselves, provide automated navigation,, integrated braking and steering.  Most auto vendors have gone beyond the testing stage to offer vehicles that have strong navigation capability.  

Safety modules are complimented by mapping vehicles that provide navigation.  The Tesla and other vehicles provide driver alerts but fall sort of complete Artificial Intelligence (AI).  

Market driving forces relate primarily to the need for increased safety and personalization for autos.  Car manufacturers are positioning with LiDAR sensors for cars to meet demand at the high end, and in every category of car and light truck.  Many Artificial Intelligence (AI) vehicle car vendors are making automation for personal vehicles and light trucks a reality.  

This LiDAR car and truck shipment analysis is based on consideration of the metrics for the number of cars shipped, vendor manufacturing and assembly capacity, percent of cars outfitted with automated cruise control, and probable market penetrations of robot cars.  Experience of testers using the cars and light trucks is another factor that contributes to development of triangulation regarding market forecasts for the sector.

Companies Profiled

Market Leaders

•	Pioneer
•	Valeo
•	Continental
•	Velodyne
•	3DEO
•	MIT Lincoln Lab

Market Participants

•	3d Laser Mapping Specialists, Airborne Lidar And Imagery
•	Avent Lidar Technology
•	AImotive
•	Alphabet, Waymo: Google
•	Google / Intel Target Driverless Cars with LiDAR
•	Waymo Deal with Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
•	Alps Electric
•	Argo AI
•	Autoliv
•	Beijing Beike Technology Co., Ltd (isurestar) (China)
•	BMW
•	Bosch Group
•	Continental
•	Daimler AG/Mercedes-Benz
•	Delphi Automotive
•	Denso
•	DigitalWorld Mapping
•	Eaton
•	ECA LiDAR
•	Faro Technologies
•	Firmatek Llc
•	Fiat Chrysler
•	Ford
•	Ford Argo AI Artificial Intelligence Company
•	General Motors
•	GM Investment in Lyft
•	Geniarp Group
•	Geniarp Group / Mosaic 3d
•	Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (GSSI)
•	GMR Group / Geokno India Pvt. Ltd. (India)
•	Harris
•	Here
•	Honda
•	Hyundai
•	Infineon Technologies AG
•	Intel Corporation
•	Intel Buys Mobileye
•	Intermap Technologies
•	Knorr-Bremse Group
•	Mesa LiDAR
•	MIT Lincoln Lab
•	MIT Agreement with Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (GSSI)
•	Mitsubishi
•	Nissan
•	NVIDIA
•	NXP
•	Pix4D
•	Pioneer
•	Qualcomm
•	Quantum Spatial
•	(Aerometric, Inc.) (U.S.)
•	Renishaw Plc
•	Riegl Laser Measurement Systems GmbH (Austria)\
•	Riegl USA
•	Scanese
•	Siemens and Infineon LiDAR
•	Softbank
•	Softbank Arm
•	Softbank Personal Brain “IBM Watson”
•	Tesla
•	Toyota / Lexus
•	Uber
•	Valeo
•	Valeo Acquisition of FTE
•	Vecna Technologies
•	Velodyne LIDAR Sensor
•	Volkswagen
•	Porsche SE
•	Volkswagen / Audi
•	Volvo
•	Visteon
•	YellowScan (France)
•	ZF
•	ZTE

Key Topics

•	Auto Artificial Intelligence
•	Automotive
•	Automated driving
•	Automated vehicles
•	Autonomous vehicles
•	in-vehicle compute, Infiniti, Internet of things
•	AI machine learning
•	Mobileye
•	Robot Cars and Trucks
•	Robot steering
•	Robot braking
•	Robot automotive systems
•	Autonomous functions for vehicles
•	Collision avoidance
•	Automated parking
•	Robot Parking
•	Robot test driving
•	Car cameras
•	Car LiDAR
•	Car radar
•	Truck follow me systems
•	Radar based monitoring systems
•	Lane assist
•	Adaptive cruise control
 Table of Contents

LiDAR Cars and Light Trucks Executive Summary 37
LiDAR Car and Light Truck Market Driving Forces 37
LiDAR Cars, Light Trucks, SUVs 40
LiDAR Cars / Connected Cars / Transportation 40
LiDAR Car and Light Truck Market Shares 44
LiDAR for Car and Light Truck Market Forecasts 46

1. LiDAR for Cars and Light Trucks Market Definition and Market Dynamics 50
1.1 Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) 50
1.2 LiDAR in Cars 52
1.1.1 Airplanes Utilize Radar to Land Themselves 54
1.3 Advanced Technology 57
1.3.1 LiDAR Adaptive Cruise Control 58
1.3.2 Automatic Braking Technologies 60
1.3.3 Automatic Brakes 61
1.3.4 Driver-Assist Technologies 62
1.3.5 Ford TAP Auto Control System 62
1.4 Car Self-Driving Enabling Technologies 65
1.4.1 Sensor Processing 65
1.4.2 Advanced Autonomous Car Software 68
1.4.3 Autonomous Vehicle Software Areas That Need Improvement 69
1.4.4 Collision Detection Machine Vision 70
1.5 LiDAR Car and Truck Challenges 75
1.5.1 Electric Car Ownership Stimulates Customized Speeds and Performance in Autonomous Cars 79

2. LiDAR in Personal Vehicles Market Shares and Market Forecasts 81
2.1 LiDAR Car and Light Truck Market Driving Forces 81
2.1.1 LiDAR Cars, Light Trucks, SUVs 84
2.1.2 LiDAR Cars / Connected Cars / Transportation 84
2.2 LiDAR Car and Light Truck Market Shares 88
2.2.1 Valeo 94
2.2.2 Continental AG 95
2.2.3 Velodyne LIDAR sensor 95
2.2.4 ZF Friedrichshafen Partner Ibeo Automotive Systems 96
2.2.5 Pioneer LiDAR 96
2.2.6 Companies in The Tech Industries Building Auto LiDAR Processors 97
2.2.7 Intel 97
2.2.8 Companies in The Automobile Industries Investing in LiDAR Vehicles 103
2.2.9 Adaptive Cruise Control 110
2.2.10 Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems (ADAS) Safety-Enhancing Systems 118
2.2.11 First Fully Autonomous Volkswagen Audi Expected by 2017 118
2.2.12 Alphabet, Waymo: Google 118
2.2.13 BMW 119
2.2.14 BMW And Intel To Bring A Fleet Of AI Cars To The Road By The End Of 2017 120
2.2.15 BMW and MIT 121
2.2.16 Daimler AG / Mercedes-Benz Self Driving Car 121
2.2.17 Mercedes AI 122
2.2.18 Volvo 123
2.2.19 Volvo AI Cars on Swedish roads 123
2.2.20 Tesla Autonomous Driving 124
2.2.21 Selected Company Investment or Planned Investment in Autonomous Vehicle Technology 124
2.3 LiDAR for Car and Light Truck Market Forecasts 126
2.3.1 Artificial Intelligence Integrated Software Systems Auto Market 132
2.3.2 Artificial Intelligence Integrated Circuit, Sensor, and Component Systems Auto Market 135
2.3.3 Examples of Sensors Used in Autonomous Vehicles 136
2.3.4 Auto Processors 139
Auto Processor 139
2.3.5 Autonomous Vehicle Car Forecasts 141
2.3.6 Autonomous Car and Autonomous Light Truck / SUV Shipments and Installed Base 148
2.3.7 LiDAR Car Unit Analysis and Forecasts 153
2.3.8 LiDAR Trucks 157
2.3.9 European Truck Platooning 158
2.3.10 Autonomous Trucking Platooning Functions 159
2.3.11 LiDAR Truck Cost 161
2.4 LiDAR Car and Light Truck Prices 163
2.5 LiDAR Car and Truck Regional Market Segments 164
2.5.1 US 166
2.5.2 China 167
2.5.3 Valeo in China 170
2.5.4 India 170
2.5.5 Wabco LiDAR Regional Participation 171
2.5.6 Ford North America 173
2.5.7 LiDAR Car Regional Analysis 174
2.5.8 Japan's Leaders Want To Make Tokyo A LiDAR City For 2020 Olympics 174
2.5.9 Autonomous Vehicle Market Forecasts By Region 176
2.5.10 Self-Driving Military Vehicle Regional Market Segments, Dollars 177

3. LiDAR Cars and Trucks Product Description 179
3.1 Selected LiDAR Companies 179
3.2 MIT Lincoln Lab 180
3.2.1 MIT Lincoln Lab Has The Best LiDAR in the World 180
3.2.2 MIT Lincoln Laboratory Understands the LiDAR Technology It Provides 180
3.2.3 MIT Lincoln Lab Single-Photon-Sensitive Imagers 182
3.2.4 MIT Agreement with Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (GSSI) on LiDAR 182
3.2.5 How the MIT Lincoln Labs LiDAR System Works 184
3.2.6 MIT LiDAR 189
3.2.7 MIT Lincoln Laboratory Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar 190
3.2.8 MIT Lincoln Labs LGPR's Main Component 192
3.2.9 Self-Driving Cars Utilize Ground-Penetrating Radar 193
3.2.10 MIT Lincoln Laboratory- Microchip Laser Geiger-Mode Avalanche-Photodiode Detector (Gmapd) Array For Single Photon Counting And Ranging 194
3.2.11 Geiger-Mode Imager: Single-Photon Detection & Timing 194
3.3 3DEO 196
3.3.1 3DEO Lidar 198
3.4 Continental AG 198
3.4.1 Continental AG Multipurpose Processing Platform 199
3.5 Valeo SA 202
3.5.1 Valeo Technologically Innovative SCALA 202
3.5.2 Valeo Low-Cost Solid-State LiDAR 204
3.5.3 Valeo to Supply LiDAR for Audi A8 in 2019 205
3.6 LeddarTech LiDAR Technology 205
3.7 Velodyne LiDAR Sensor 207
3.7.1 Land Rover LiDAR Technology for Driverless Cars 207
3.8 Leica Geosystems Ag 208
3.9 ZF Friedrichshafen and Partner Ibeo for Automotive Systems 211
3.10 Vecna Technologies 211
3.11 Garmin LiDAR-Lite v3 211
3.12 Scanse 215
3.13 Nvidia 217
3.14 Pioneer 220
3.15 Tesla Model S 224
3.15.1 Tesla Motors Computer-Assisted Mode Car Involved in Fatal Crash while Driving Autonomously 225
3.15.2 Tesla Autopilot 227
3.15.3 Tesla AI Autopilot Parking 228
3.16 Velodyne LiDAR Used by Alphabet Waymo Self Driving Car 229
3.16.1 Waymo AI Takes Over Driving 230
3.17 Apple 230
3.17.1 Apple Testing LiDAR Auto-Pilot 231
3.17.2 Apple Self-Driving Car Testing 232
3.18 Amazon 233
3.19 Toyota 235
3.19.1 Toyota Lexus Adaptive Cruise Control 236
3.20 Volkswagon / Audi / Porsche 238
3.20.1 Valeo LiDAR on First Fully Autonomous Audi Comes in 2017 240
3.20.2 Audi Driverless Car Travels 550 Miles from San Francisco to Las Vegas 241
3.20.3 Volkswagen 243
3.21 Softbank 243
3.21.1 Denso, a Leading Global Supplier Of Advanced Automotive Technology 245
3.21.2 Softbank Arm Processor Has Protections Against Random Errors 245
3.21.3 SoftBank CEO Masayoshi Son Sees 1 Trillion Devices for Internet of Things 246
3.21.4 SoftBank Sees Massive MIMO as Key Part of Its 5G Project 248
3.22 Intel AI Sensor Processor 248
3.23 Intel / Mobileye 250
3.24 Ford Using Velodyne LiDAR in Self Driving Car 250
3.25 Chinese Search Giant Baidu along with Ford Invests in Self-Driving Technology with $150 million in Velodyne 253
3.26 Daimler / Mercedes 254
3.26.1 Daimler Luminar 255
3.26.2 Daimler Working on Autonomous Vehicle Mapping with HERE 255
3.26.3 Mercedes Vehicle to Vehicle Communication 256
3.26.4 Mercedes Lets The Human Do The Thinking And Leaves The Driving To The Computer 257
3.26.5 Mercedes Self Driving Car Interior 259
3.26.6 Mercedes-Benz F 015 262
3.26.7 Mercedes-Benz Leads In Concept Cars: Safety Leads the Research 268
3.26.8 Daimler LiDAR Truck 269
3.27 Bosch and Daimler / Mercedes-Benz 270
3.28 Nissan 271
3.28.1 Nissan and NASA To Build Zero-Emission Driverless Car 275
3.28.2 Nissan EPORO LiDAR Car 276
3.29 / GM / Cadillac 277
3.29.1 GM Self Driving Cadillac 278
3.29.2 GM Safety Technology 280
3.29.3 Buick LaCrosse 282
3.29.4 GM Short-Range Communications Allows GM Cars To Use Alps Electric Radar Effectively 283
3.30 Volvo 289
3.30.1 Volvo's LiDAR Technology Struggling to Identify Kangaroos In The Road 291
3.30.2 Volvo's Self-Parking, Driverless Car 292
3.30.3 Volvo Mobile App of the iPhone "Park Now" Button 296
3.31 BMW 298
3.31.1 BMW Partially Automated Driving Functions 302
3.31.2 BMW Autonomous Car Safety Features 303
3.31.3 BMW Performance Limits Of Its Driverless Car 303
3.31.4 BMW's Driverless Cars in China 306
3.32 Subaru Adaptive Cruise Control 308
3.33 Honda 310
3.33.1 Honda LiDAR Car in Detroit 315
3.34 Hyundai Genesis Smart Cruise Control 317
3.35 Tata Motors Limited / Jaguar Adaptive Cruise Control 323
3.35.1 Driverless Cars Shaped by Land Rover Technology 324
3.35.2 Velodyne LIDAR sensor 325
3.35.3 Jaguar Driverless Cars 325
3.35.4 Tata Motors Limited / Jaguar / Land Rover 326
3.35.5 Land Rover Smart Driver Assistance Technologies 328
3.35.6 Land Rover Reverse Traffic Detection 329
3.35.7 Land Rover Electric Power-Assisted Steering with Park Assist 331
3.35.8 Land Rover Powerful Braking With Lightweight Brembo Calipers 332
3.35.9 Land Rover Enhanced Active Safety Technologies 334
3.35.10 Driverless Cars Shaped by Land Rover Technology 337
3.36 Chrysler 300 SRT8 340
3.36.1 Chrysler Technology Recognizes When Things Slow Down 341
3.37 Texas Instruments Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) 341
3.37.1 Texas Instrument Camera Capability for ADAS 343
3.37.2 TI ADAS Radar Support 345
3.37.3 TI ADAS Ultrasound Support 346
3.37.4 TI ADAS Full System Portfolio 347

4. LiDAR Cars and Light Trucks Technology 348
4.1 High Resolution Digital Cameras 348
4.2 Vehicle To Vehicle Communication (V2V) Safety 348
4.2.1 Euro NCAP’s Rating Scheme 351
4.2.2 In the US, Rear-Visibility Requirements 351
4.3 IoT Standards Ecosystem Growth 351
4.3.1 Unified Communication Standards 352
4.4 Standards 353
4.4.1 SAE International 353
4.4.2 U.S. Department of Transportation 353
4.4.3 European Union and European Commission LiDAR Standards 354
4.5 Self-Driving Car Test Facility in UK 354
4.6 MIT Demonstrates Swarm Of Modular Cars That Self-Assemble Into Larger Shapes 355
4.7 LiDAR Single-Photon-Sensitive Imagers 355
4.7.1 Geiger-Mode LiDAR Technology Offers Accurate Data 359
4.7.2 Geiger-Mode LiDAR Technology 359
4.7.3 Geiger-Mode LiDAR 359
4.7.4 3deo® builds upon US Department of Defense investments in Geiger-Mode LiDAR 361
4.7.5 Harris Geiger LiDAR 361
4.7.6 MIT Lincoln Lab Geiger LiDAR Technology 363
4.8 LiDAR Car Fish-Inspired Technology 364
4.9 Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) 366
4.9.1 Distance Measured By A Small Radar Unit 367
4.9.2 ACC Technology 367
4.9.3 Adaptive Cruise Control 368
4.9.4 Lexus_IS250_ACC Adaptive Cruise Control 369
4.10 Advanced LiDAR Technology: Navigation, Mobility, And Manipulation 371
4.10.1 LiDAR Intelligence Systems 371
4.10.2 Real-World, Dynamic Sensing 372
4.11 User-Friendly Interfaces 372
4.11.1 Tightly-Integrated, Electromechanical LiDAR Design 373
4.11.2 Modular LiDAR Structure And Control 373
4.11.3 Lattice Architectures 374
4.11.4 Chain / Tree Architectures 374
4.11.5 Deterministic Reconfiguration 374
4.11.6 Stochastic Reconfiguration 375
4.11.7 Modular LiDAR Systems 375
4.12 Network of LiDAR Software and Sensors 376
4.12.1 Sensor Networks Part Of Research Agenda 377
4.12.2 Light Sensing 378
4.12.3 Acceleration Sensing 378
4.12.4 Chemical Sensing 378
4.13 Self-Driving Car Software Technology Functions 379
4.14 Intel Integrated Circuit Evidence-Based Innovation 380
4.14.1 Open Control Software 381

5. LiDAR Cars and Trucks Company Descriptions 385
5.1 3d Laser Mapping Specialists, Airborne Lidar And Imagery 385
5.2 Avent Lidar Technology 385
5.3 AImotive 387
5.3.1 AImotive Location Engine 388
5.3.2 AImotive Recognition Engine 388
5.3.3 AImotive Motion Engine 389
5.3.4 AImotive Control Engine 389
5.3.5 Aimotive 389
5.4 Alphabet, Waymo: Google 390
5.4.1 Google / Intel Target Driverless Cars with LiDAR 391
5.4.2 Alphabet Google Positioning 395
5.4.3 Alphabet / Google 396
5.4.4 Alphabet Revenue 399
5.4.5 Google Revenue 400
5.4.6 Alphabet / Waymo 401
5.4.7 Alphabet Waymo LiDAR Car Fleet 401
5.4.8 Waymo Deal with Fiat Chrysler Automobiles 403
5.4.9 Google 406
5.4.10 Google Search Technology 406
5.4.11 Google Recognizes World Is Increasingly Mobile 407
5.4.12 Google LiDAR Car 407
5.4.13 Google Cars Address Vast Majority Of Vehicle Accidents Due To Human Error 410
5.4.14 Google Business 411
5.4.15 Google Corporate 412
5.4.16 Google Search 413
5.5 Alps Electric 414
5.6 Argo AI 416
5.7 Autoliv 417
5.8 -Beijing Beike Technology Co., Ltd (isurestar) (China) 419
5.9 BMW 419
5.9.1 BMW Strategy 419
5.9.2 BMW Revenue 420
5.10 Bosch Group 421
5.10.1 Bosch Deepfield Robotics 421
5.10.2 Bosch Business Overview 421
5.10.3 Bosch Group Reorganized Its Business Sectors 422
5.10.4 Bosch Group 423
5.11 Continental 426
5.12 Daimler AG/Mercedes-Benz 428
5.12.1 Daimler Mobility 433
5.12.2 Daimler Autonomous Vehicles 434
5.12.3 Daimler Shared Services 436
5.13 Delphi Automotive 443
5.13.1 Delphi Adaptive Cruise Control 444
5.14 Denso 445
5.15 DigitalWorld Mapping 449
5.16 Eaton 452
5.17 ECA LiDAR 453
5.18 Faro Technologies 455
5.18.1 Faro Technologies Global Offices 455
5.18.2 Faro Technologies Acquires MWF-Technology GmbH 456
5.18.3 Faro Q1 2017 Financial Results 457
5.19 Firmatek Llc 460
5.20 Fiat Chrysler 460
5.20.1 Chrysler / Dodge 461
5.21 Ford 461
5.21.1 Ford Pickup 463
5.21.2 Ford Argo AI Artificial Intelligence Company 463
5.21.3 Argo AI Joins with Ford’s Autonomous Vehicle Software Development Effort 465
5.21.4 Ford Argo AI 466
5.21.5 Ford Investments And Partnerships To Help With Autonomous Vehicle Development 467
5.21.6 Ford Continuing To Chase Automotive Market Volume 467
5.21.7 Ford Business 468
5.21.8 Ford Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy 471
5.21.9 Ford Revenue 471
5.22 General Motors 472
5.22.1 General Motors Positioning 472
5.22.2 GM European Business Exit 473
5.22.3 General Motors (GM) Acquired Cruise Automation 475
5.22.4 GM Investment in Lyft 475
5.22.5 GM 476
5.22.6 GM Chevrolet Impala 476
5.22.7 General Motors (GM) Redefining Itself 477
5.22.8 GM Business 479
5.22.9 GM Strategy 479
5.23 Geniarp Group 480
5.23.1 Geniarp Group / Mosaic 3d 481
5.24 Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (GSSI) 484
5.25 - GMR Group / Geokno India Pvt. Ltd. (India) 484
5.25.1 Geokno StreetMapper Mobile Mapping System 485
5.26 Harris 485
5.26.1 Harris Geiger-mode LiDAR 486
5.27 Here 490
5.28 Honda 490
5.29 Hyundai 492
5.29.1 Hyundai Autonomous Vehicle Uses Olympus Digital Camera and Maps 493
5.30 Infineon Technologies AG 494
5.30.1 Infineon Automotive 494
5.31 Intel Corporation 495
5.31.1 Intel Buys Mobileye 496
5.31.2 Intel Acquires Mobileye 500
5.31.3 Intel / Mobileye 500
5.31.4 Intel Company Strategy 502
5.31.5 Intel In The Internet Of Things Market Segment 504
5.31.6 Intel Competitive Advantages 505
5.32 Intermap Technologies Corp 506
5.33 Knorr-Bremse Group 508
5.33.1 Knorr-Bremse Leading Player In Electronic Controls And Driver Assistance Systems 509
5.34 Leica Geosystems Ag 509
5.34.1 Leica ALS80 Airborne Topographic LiDAR Sensor 509
5.35 Mesa LiDAR 511
5.36 MIT Lincoln Lab 511
5.36.1 MIT Lincoln Lab Single-Photon-Sensitive Imagers 512
5.36.2 MIT Lincoln Lab 513
5.36.3 MIT Lincoln Lab Single-Photon-Sensitive Imagers 514
5.36.4 MIT Agreement with Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (GSSI) 515
5.37 Mitsubishi 516
5.38 Nissan 517
5.39 NVIDIA 517
5.39.1 Nvidia Revenue 518
5.40 NXP 519
5.41 Pix4D 520
5.42 Pioneer 522
5.43 Qualcomm 523
5.43.1 Qualcomm Business 523
5.43.2 QMC Offers Comprehensive Chipset Solutions 524
5.43.3 Qualcomm Standardization Capabilities 525
5.43.4 Qualcomm Regulatory and Compliance Capabilities 526
5.43.5 Qualcomm (QCOM, Tech30) Acquires NXP Semiconductors (NXPI 526
5.44 Quantum Spatial, Inc. 527
5.44.1 -Quantum Spatial (Aerometric, Inc.) (U.S.) 530
5.45 Renishaw Plc 530
5.45.1 Dynascan at Kisimul Castle, Scotland 533
5.46 -Riegl Laser Measurement Systems GmbH (Austria) 535
5.46.1 Riegl USA 536
5.47 Scanese 536
5.48 Siemens and Infineon LiDAR 538
5.49 Softbank 539
5.49.1 Softbank Arm 540
5.49.2 Softbank Personal Brain “IBM Watson” 543
5.50 Tesla 544
5.50.1 Tesla’s Mission Is To Accelerate The World’s Transition To Sustainable Transport 545
5.50.2 Tesla Autopilot 547
5.51 Toyota / Lexus 548
5.51.1 Toyota / Lexus 548
5.52 Uber 549
5.52.1 Uber 550
5.52.2 Uber Revenue 551
5.53 Valeo 552
5.53.1 Valeo Acquisition of FTE 560
5.53.2 Valeo 561
5.54 Vecna Technologies 561
5.55 Velodyne LIDAR sensor 562
5.56 Volkswagen 563
5.56.1 Volkswagon Brands 564
5.56.2 Porsche SE 565
5.56.3 Porsche SE 565
5.56.4 Volkswagen / Audi 566
5.56.5 Audi Gets The Second Driverless Car Permit In Nevada 567
5.57 Volvo 567
5.58 Visteon 567
5.59 -YellowScan (France) 568
5.60 ZF 571
5.60.1 ZF Swarm Intelligence 571
5.60.2 ZF Friedrichshafen AG 574
5.61 ZTE 575
5.61.1 ZTE Demonstrates Smart NB-IoT solutions 575
5.62 Selected LiDAR Companies 576
5.63 Selected Self-Driving Vehicle Companies 578
5.63.1 List of Companies Examined For Ranking by ADAS Revenues 583
WinterGreen Research, 587
WinterGreen Research Methodology 588
List of Figures

Figure 1. Sensor and Computing Configurations for Cars Driving Themselves 39
Figure 2. LiDAR Cars and Trucks Market Driving Forces 42
Figure 3. Autonomous Vehicle Safety Features Used in LiDAR Cars 43
Figure 4. LiDAR for Self-Driving Cars and Light Trucks, 2016 45
Figure 5. LiDAR Key Components 47
Figure 6. LiDAR for Autonomous Car and Autonomous Light Truck / SUV Shipments Forecasts Dollars, Worldwide, 2017-2023 49
Figure 7. Short Range LiDAR Mapping Benefits For Autonomous Vehicles 51
Figure 8. Daimler E-Class is World’s First Production Car To Be Issued A Test License For Autonomous Driving 55
Figure 9. Ford Auto Control System 64
Figure 10. Autonomous Vehicle Integration Software Components 66
Figure 11. Advanced Autonomous Car Software Features 68
Figure 12. Collision Detection Machine Vision System For Law Enforcement 70
Figure 13. Collision Detection Machine Vision System Components Features for Law Enforcement 71
Figure 14. Intel Mobileye Law Enforcement Agency Clients: 74
Figure 15. LiDAR Car and Truck Challenges 75
Figure 16. LiDAR Car and Truck Mapping and Navigation Challenges 76
Figure 17. Challenges Met and Upon Encountering Need The Driver To Take Over 77
Figure 18. LiDAR Car and Truck Human Factors 78
Figure 19. Sensor and Computing Configurations for Cars Driving Themselves 83
Figure 20. LiDAR Cars and Trucks Market Driving Forces 86
Figure 21. Autonomous Vehicle Safety Features Used in LiDAR Cars 87
Figure 22. LiDAR for Self-Driving Cars and Light Trucks, 2016 89
Figure 23. LiDAR for Autonomous Vehicles, 2016 90
Figure 24. Valeo Scala LiDAR 94
Figure 25. Artificial Intelligence IC and Component Auto and ADAS Module Market Shares, Dollars, Worldwide, 2016 99
Figure 26. Artificial Intelligence IC and Component Auto and ADAS Module Market Shares, Dollars, Worldwide, 2016 100
Figure 28. LiDAR Cars and Light Trucks on the Road, Worldwide, 2016 Chart 104
Figure 29. LiDAR Cars and Light Trucks on the Road, Worldwide, 2016 105
Figure 30. LiDAR Car Level 2 Autonomous Vehicle Market Shares, Number of Vehicles on Road, Worldwide, 2016 and 2017 106
Figure 31. List of Cars with Collision Avoidance Features 111
Figure 32. Collision Avoidance Systems Market Shares, Units, Installed Worldwide, 2016 112
Figure 33. Selected Leaders in Development of AI Cars and Trucks 113
Figure 34. Selected Large Company AI Car Partnerships 114
Figure 35. Large Company Self-Driving Car Acquisitions 115
Figure 36. Large Company AI Car Leveraging IoT 116
Figure 37. Mobileye Intel Automotive Market Access Features 117
Figure 38. Mercedes Intelligent Drive Level 2 Autonomous Car 122
Figure 39. Selected Company Investment or Planned Investment in Autonomous Vehicle Technology, Market Shares Dollars, Worldwide, 2017 to 2027 125
Figure 40. LiDAR Key Components 127
Figure 41. LiDAR for Autonomous Car and Autonomous Light Truck / SUV Shipments Forecasts Dollars, Worldwide, 2017-2023 129
Figure 42. LiDAR for Autos and Light Trucks / SUVs Market, Dollars, Shipments, Worldwide, 2017-2023 130
Figure 43. LiDAR for Autos and Light Trucks / SUVs Market, Unit Shipments, Worldwide, 2017-2023 130
Figure 44. LiDAR for Autos and Light Trucks / SUVs Market, Markets for Autonomous Vehicles, Units and Dollars, Shipments, Worldwide, 2017-2023 131
Figure 45. Challenges in the LiDAR market 132
Figure 46. Artificial Intelligence Integrated Software Systems Auto Market Units and Dollars, Shipments, Worldwide, 2017-2023 134
Figure 47. Artificial Intelligence Integrated Circuit, Sensor, and Component Systems Auto Market, Units and Dollars, Shipments, Worldwide, 2017-2023 135
Figure 48. Examples of Sensors Used in Autonomous Vehicles 136
Figure 49. Typical Auto Sensor 138
Figure 50. Autonomous Car and Light Truck / SUV Market Forecasts, Units, Worldwide, 2017-2023 142
Figure 51. Total Manual and Autonomous Car and Light Truck Shipments, Market Forecasts, Units and Percent Autonomous of Total Shipments, Worldwide, 2017-2023 143
Figure 52. Autonomous Car and Autonomous Light Truck / SUV Shipments Base Market Forecasts Dollars, Worldwide, 2017-2023 145
Figure 53. Autonomous Car and Autonomous Light Truck / SUV Shipments Market Forecasts, Dollars, Worldwide, 2017-2023 146
Figure 54. Autonomous Car and Autonomous Light Truck / SUV Shipments Market Forecasts, Units, Worldwide, 2017-2023 147
Figure 55. Autonomous Car and Autonomous Light Truck / SUV Shipments and Installed Base, Market Forecasts Dollars and Units, Worldwide, 2017-2023 148
Figure 56. Autonomous Car and Autonomous Light Truck / SUV Shipments and on the Road, Small, Mid-Size, Luxury, and Light Truck / SUV Market Forecasts, Level 2 and Level 4 Autonomous Personal Vehicles, Units, Worldwide, 2017-2023 149
Figure 57. Autonomous Car and Autonomous Light Truck / SUV Shipments and on the Road, Small, Mid-Size, Luxury, and Light Truck / SUV Market Forecasts, Level 2 and Level 4 Autonomous Personal Vehicles, Dollars, Worldwide, 2017-2023 149
Figure 58. Autonomous Car and Autonomous Light Truck / SUV Shipments and Installed Base, Small, Mid-Size, Luxury, and Light Truck / SUV Market Forecasts, Percent, Worldwide, 2017-2023 152
Figure 59. Autonomous Car and Autonomous Light Truck / SUV Shipments and on the Road, Small, Mid-Size, Luxury, and Light Truck / SUV Market Forecasts, Level 2 and Level 4 Autonomous Personal Vehicles, Worldwide, 2017-2023 153
Figure 60. Automated Driving Building Blocks Supporting Market Growth 155
Figure 61. Automated Driving Features 156
Figure 62. LiDAR Trucks In a Line on the Highway 157
Figure 63. Autonomous Trucking Platooning Functions 160
Figure 64. Artificial Intelligence Car Regional Market Segments, Dollars, 2016 165
Figure 65. Artificial Intelligence Car and Light Truck Regional Market Segments, 2016 166
Figure 66. Chinese ADAS Market Participants 168
Figure 67. Chinese ADAS Market Segments by Provinces 169
Figure 68. Self-Driving Military Vehicle Regional Market Segments, Dollars 177
Figure 69. Self-Driving Military Regional Market Segments, 2016 178
Figure 70. Selected LiDAR Companies 179
Figure 71. Three-Dimensional Image Acquired by the Lincoln Laboratory Airborne Ladar Imaging Research Testbed (ALIRT) flash LiDAR system 186
Figure 72. MIT Lincoln Labs Flash LADAR System And Technology Showing The Foliage Penetration Capability 187
Figure 73. MIT Lincoln Laboratory Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar System 189
Figure 74. MIT Lincoln Laboratory Operational Physics of Geiger-Mode APD Arrays 196
Figure 75. 3DEO 3-Dimensional Electro Optic Imaging Customers 197
Figure 76. 3DEO Lidar Types 198
Figure 78. Continental LiDAR Multi Function Camera with LiDAR Sensor Module 200
Figure 79. Continental LiDAR Multi-Function Camera with LiDAR Sensor Holistic Machine Human Interface 201
Figure 80. Valeo SCALA® Laser Scanner 203
Figure 81. Leica DragonEye Oblique Topographic LiDAR Sensor 209
Figure 82. Garmin LiDAR-Lite v3 213
Figure 83. Garmin LIDAR-Lite v3 Specifications and Features 214
Figure 84. Scanse LiDAR Specifications 216
Figure 85. Nvidia Auto Artificial Intelligence Processor 217
Figure 86. Nvidia Next Generation High-Speed Interconnect Technology 218
Figure 87. Nvidia Tesla V100 Artificial Intelligence Metrics 220
Figure 88. Tesla Electric Vehicle 224
Figure 89. Tesla Autopilot 227
Figure 90. Amazon Alexa Self-Driving Software Automotive Partners 233
Figure 91. Amazon Autonomous Delivery Vehicle 234
Figure 92. Toyota Self Driving Car 235
Figure 93. Lexus Adaptive Cruise Control 236
Figure 94. Lexus_IS250_ACC Adaptive Cruise Control 237
Figure 95. Audi Connect 239
Figure 96. Volkswagen Self Driving Car 243
Figure 97. Intel Compute 249
Figure 98. Ford LiDAR Car 252
Figure 99. Mercedes LiDAR truck 254
Figure 100. Mercedes LiDAR Truck Will Pull To One Side To Let A Firetruck Pass257
Figure 101. Mercedes LiDAR Vehicle 258
Figure 102. Mercedes Self Driving Car Open Interior 259
Figure 103. Mercedes Self Driving Car Interior 260
Figure 104. Mercedes-Benz F 015 262
Figure 105. Mercedes Self Driving Car Vision Is To Raise Comfort And Luxury To A New Level By Offering Maximum Of Space And A Lounge Character 263
Figure 106. Mercedes-Benz Self Driving Car Interior 265
Figure 107. Mercedes-Benz Self Driving Car Impact-Protected Installation Of F-Cell Plug-In Hybrid Drive System 267
Figure 108. Nissan Self Driving Car 273
Figure 109. Nissan Zero-Emission Driverless Car 275
Figure 110. GM Self Driving Cadillac 278
Figure 111. GM Safety Technology 281
Figure 112. Buick LaCrosse LiDAR Vehicle 282
Figure 113. GM Cadillac Self Driving Car 284
Figure 114. GM EN-V Hands Free Driverless Auto 286
Figure 115. GM EN-V Hands Free Driverless Auto 287
Figure 116. General Motors LiDAR Auto 288
Figure 117. Self-Driven Volvo SUV Owned And Operated By Uber Technologies Flipped On Its Side After A Collision 289
Figure 118. Volvo Self Driving Car Functions 290
Figure 119. Volvo Self Driving Car Auto Parking 292
Figure 120. Technologies Needed To Equip A Car With A Self-Parking Capability 293
Figure 121. Volvo Self Driving Vehicle 294
Figure 122. High End Volvo With Safety Package 296
Figure 123. BMW Open Mobility Cloud Processors And A Platform Support Third-Party Partner Applications 299
Figure 124. BMW Self Driving Car 300
Figure 125. Partnership Among BMW Group, Intel and Mobileye To Work On Fully Automated Driving 301
Figure 126. BMW Autonomous Driving Race Car 304
Figure 127. BMW Autonomous Car GPS Systems 305
Figure 128. Subaru LiDAR Car 308
Figure 129. Subaru Adaptive Cruise Control Features 309
Figure 130. Honda Civic comes with ADAS 311
Figure 131. Honda Car Safety Adapter Systems 312
Figure 132. Hyundai All-Electric Ioniq 318
Figure 133. Hyundai All-Electric Ioniq 319
Figure 134. Hyundai Genesis Advanced Safety Features, Lane Departure Warning System (LDWS) and Smart Cruise Control (SCC) 320
Figure 135. Hyundai Genesis Smart Cruise Control 321
Figure 136. Tata Driverless Car 323
Figure 137. Land Rover Range Rover 327
Figure 138. Land Rover Range Rover 330
Figure 139. Land Rover Terrain Response® Functions 332
Figure 140. Land Rover Range Rover 333
Figure 141. Land Rover Enhanced Active Safety Technologies 335
Figure 142. Land Rover Range Rover 336
Figure 143. LandRover Velodyne LIDAR Sensor 338
Figure 144. Fiat Chrysler Semi-Autonomous Electric Vehicle Designed For Millennials With Families Functions 340
Figure 145. TI ADAS Solutions Targeted Applications 342
Figure 146. TI ADAS Camera Solutions Key Benefits 343
Figure 147. Texas Instrument Camera Capability for ADAS 344
Figure 148. TI ADAS Radar Support 345
Figure 149. TI ADAS Ultrasound Support 346
Figure 150. TI ADAS Full System Portfolio 347
Figure 151. Sensors Underlying Technology 349
Figure 152. Levels of Driving Situation Autonomy Simulated for Testing 349
Figure 153. Autonomous Car Pilot Programs and Testing Locations 350
Figure 154. Unified Communication Standards 352
Figure 155. Three-dimensional image acquired by the Lincoln Laboratory Airborne Ladar Imaging Research Testbed (ALIRT) flash LADAR system. The colors indicate relative heights above ground; red = highest; blue = lowest. 357
Figure 156. LiDAR Single-Photon-Sensitive Pixel 358
Figure 157. MIT Lincoln Laboratory LiDAR Image of the Grand Canyon 360
Figure 158. Geiger and Linear GmAPD LiDAR System Comparison 362
Figure 159. Harris Linear LiDAR 362
Figure 160. Harris Geiger LiDAR 363
Figure 165. Integrated Circuit-Based Innovative Navigation Mapping Functions380
Figure 167. LiDAR Communications Key Technology 383
Figure 168. Military LiDAR Key Navigation Technologies 384
Figure 169. Avent Lidar Technology 386
Figure 170. Avent Lidar Technology Features 387
Figure 171. AImotive Neural Networks aiDrive Software Engines Responsible For Specific Key Component Of Self-Driving Technology 388
Figure 172. Waymo 3 Million Miles Self Driven 390
Figure 173. Waymo LiDAR Car on Public Roads 394
Figure 174. Alphabet Waymo Early Riders Self Driving Van in Arizona 395
Figure 175. Alphabet Strategic Positioning 398
Figure 176. Google LiDAR Car Locations 405
Figure 177. Google Autonomous Vehicles Technology 409
Figure 178. Alps Electric Core Technology 415
Figure 179. Bosch Business Highlights 424
Figure 180. Bosch Positioning for Growth 425
Figure 181. Continental LiDAR 426
Figure 182. Products from Continental: Assistance Systems 427
Figure 183. Daimler AG Brands 428
Figure 184. Daimler LiDAR Positioning Autonomous, Connected, Shared Services 429
Figure 185. Daimler Mercedes Electric Vehicle 430
Figure 186. Daimler Mercedes Connected Vehicle 431
Figure 187. Daimler Mercedes Electric Truck 432
Figure 188. Daimler Rapidly Forging Ahead With The Development Of Autonomous Vehicles 434
Figure 189. Daimler Mercedes Autonomous Vehicles 435
Figure 190. My Taxi and Hailo Create Taxi E-Hailing Company for Europe 437
Figure 191. Daimler Revenue by Region 442
Figure 192. Denso Regional Presence 447
Figure 193. Denso Automatic Lane Change 448
Figure 194. Eaton Industrial Clutches and Brakes 453
Figure 195. ECA LiDAR Range Of Products 454
Figure 196. Faro Technologies Global Presence 456
Figure 197. Factors Impacting Ford Profitability Of Business 470
Figure 198. GM Market Positioning 478
Figure 199. Geniarp Group LiDAR technology Mapping Images 481
Figure 200. Geniarp Group Mosaic Lidar System 483
Figure 201. Harris Geiger-Mode LiDAR Images Make Buildings Look Like Legos 486
Figure 202. Harris Geospatial LiDAR Image, Trees and Homes Distinctive 488
Figure 203. Harris’ Geiger-mode LiDAR data and value-added products Functions: 489
Figure 204. Mobileye Provides Intel Access to the Automotive Market 498
Figure 205. Mobileye Intel Automotive Market Access Features 498
Figure 206. Leica ALS80 Airborne Topographic LiDAR Sensor For Large Area And Corridor Mapping. 510
Figure 207. Nvidia Interconnect and Memory Parameters 518
Figure 208. NXP Worldwide Locations 519
Figure 209. Pix4D LiDAR Imaging 521
Figure 210. QMC Technology Chipset Solutions For Smart Connected Devices 525
Figure 211. Quantum Spatial LiDAR Applications 529
Figure 212. Renishaw Marine Surveying Applications 532
Figure 213. Dynascan at Kisimul Castle, Scotland Coastal Surveying Features 533
Figure 214. Renishaw Dynascan Mapping 534
Figure 215. RIEGL Performance Laser Scanners 535
Figure 216. Riegl USA Miniaturized LiDAR Sensor for Unmanned Laser Scanning 536
Figure 217. Scanse LLC Sweep Laser Scanning Devices 537
Figure 218. Siemens Automotive Traffic Control Systems 539
Figure 219. Softbank Brightstar Specialized Wireless Industry Wholesaler Functions 543
Figure 220. Toyota / Lexus Advanced Active Safety Research Vehicle Features 549
Figure 221. Valeo Regional Market Presence 554
Figure 222. Valeo 9-Point Outperformance in Asia Q1 2017 555
Figure 223. Valeo OEM Sales by Production Region 556
Figure 224. Valeo Comfort and Driving Assistance 557
Figure 225. Valeo Revenue by Segment 558
Figure 226. Driverless Cars Shaped by Land Rover Technology 562
Figure 227. Volkswagon Brands 564
Figure 228. YellowScan Lidar 569
Figure 229. YellowScan LiDAR Specifications: 570
Figure 230. YellowScan LiDAR Sensor Benefits: 570
Figure 231. YellowScan Mapper Functions: 571
Figure 232. ZF NVIDIA DRIVE PX 2 AI Computing Platform 571
Figure 233. Selected LiDAR Companies 576 



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