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hERG Screening

Published: Apr, 2015 | Pages: 245 | Publisher: RESEARCH IMPACT TECHNOLOGIES
Industry: Biotechnology | Report Format: Electronic (PDF)

This report on hERG Screening presents an in depth analysis of hERG Screening market. The study emphasizes on both technology and product segments of hERG Screening in biotechnology and pharmaceutical application areas. The report provides essential information including market data, segmentation, market size, key trends, M&A, product developments, industry forecasts, corporate intelligence, and other relevant information. The report lists more than 120 companies that are engaged in hERG Screening services and/or production of hERG screening tools/instruments. A global perspective is presented along with regional analysis covering North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World. Compilation of Worldwide Patents and Research related to hERG Screening is also provided. The market is analyzed in US Dollars and includes 35 exclusive graphically illustrated exhibits.
 Table of Content

Introduction	3
Ion Channels	3
History	4
Types of Ion Channels	4
Voltage-Gated Ion Channel	4
Ligand-Gated Ion Channel	4
Normal Functioning of Heart	6
QT Interval	7
Short QT Syndrome	7
Long QT Syndrome	7
Types of LQTS	8
Genetical LQTS	8
Acquired LQTS	8
Signs and Symptoms	9
Drug Induced LQTS	10
Causes	10
Long QT Syndrome and Torsade de pointes	11
Recording the Electrical Activity of Heart Beat	11
Diagnosis of LQTS	12
Treatment	13
PQRST Wave	13
Cell Lines	14
Cardiomyocytes	14
HEK 293 Cell Lines	14
CHO or Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells	14
hERG and Drug Discovery	15
hERG Screening - Global Market Analysis	16
Exhibit 1. hERG Screening – Global Value Market Estimations & Predictions (2005 - 2020) in US$ Million	16
Exhibit 2. List of Major Global Companies	17
Market Overview	18
Global hERG Screening Market	19
Exhibit 3. hERG Screening – Global Value Market Estimations & Predictions (2005 - 2020) by Geographic Region for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World in US$ Million	19
Exhibit 4. hERG Screening – Global Value Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Geographic Region for  North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World	20
The Impact of hERG	20
North American hERG Screening Market	21
Exhibit 5. hERG Screening – North American Value Market Estimations & Predictions (2005 - 2020) in by Country for United States and Canada US$ Million	21
Exhibit 6. hERG Screening – North American Value Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Country for United States and Canada	22
United States hERG Screening Market	22
Canadian hERG Screening Market	22
Canadian hERG Screening market was estimated at US$ 129.05 million in 2012. The market is projected to reach around US$ 487.4 million by 2020, increasing at CAGR of 21.97 %, during the analysis period (2005-2020).	22
Exhibit 7. List of Major North American hERG Screening Companies	23
European hERG Screening Market	24
Exhibit 8. hERG Screening – European Value Market Estimations & Predictions (2005 - 2020) by Country for United Kingdom, Germany, France, Switzerland, Russia and Rest of Europe in US$ Million	24
Exhibit 9. hERG Screening – European Value Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Country for United Kingdom, Germany, France, Switzerland, Russia and Rest of Europe	25
UK hERG Screening Market	25
German hERG Screening Market	25
French HERG Screening Market	25
Swiss hERG Screening Market	25
Russian hERG Screening Market	26
Exhibit 10. List of Major European hERG Screening Companies	26
Asia-Pacific hERG Screening Market	27
Exhibit 11. hERG Screening – Asia-Pacific Value Market Estimations & Predictions (2005 - 2020) by Country for Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific in US$ Million	27
Exhibit 12. hERG Screening – Asia-Pacific Value Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Country for Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific	28
Australian hERG Screening Market	28
Chinese hERG Screening Market	28
Indian hERG Screening Market	28
Japanese hERG Screening Market	28
South Korean hERG Screening Market	29
Exhibit 13. List of Major Asia-Pacific hERG Screening Companies	29
Rest of World hERG Screening Market	30
Exhibit 14. hERG Screening – Rest of World Value Market Estimations & Predictions (2005 - 2020) by Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries in US$ Million	30
Exhibit 15. hERG Screening – Rest of World Value Market Share (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries	31
Israeli hERG Screening Market	31
South African hERG Screening Market	31
Brazilian hERG Screening Market	31
Company Profiles - Major Players in hERG Screening Market	32
Abcam PLC (UK)	32
Abnova Corporation (Taiwan)	33
Aurora Biomed, Inc. (Canada)	34
AVIVA BioSciences Corporation (USA)	36
B’SYS GmbH (Switzerland)	37
Cellular Dynamics International, Inc. (USA)	39
Cerep SA (France)	40
ChanTest Corporation (USA)	41
Charles River Laboratories International, Inc. (USA)	42
Covance, Inc. (USA)	43
CreaCell (France)	43
Cyprotex plc (UK)	44
Cytocentric Biosciences GmbH (Germany)	44
Dundalk Institute of Technology (Ireland)	45
EMD Millipore Corporation (USA)	47
flyion GmbH (Germany)	48
GE Healthcare (UK)	49
Life Technologies Corporation (USA)	50
LifeSpan BioSciences, Inc. (USA)	52
Molecular Devices, Inc. (USA)	53
Nanion Technologies GmbH (Germany)	54
NeuroSolutions Ltd. (UK)	55
Novus Biologicals LLC (USA)	56
PerkinElmer, Inc. (USA)	58
Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. (USA)	59
Schrodinger LLC (USA)	59
Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC (USA)	60
Sophion Bioscience A/S (Denmark)	61
TetraQ (Australia)	62
Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. (USA)	62
Tocris Bioscience (USA)	63
UW-Madison College of Engineering (The) (USA)	64
Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) (USA)	65
WuXi AppTec (China)	66
Major Activities in hERG Screening Market	67
Huntingdon Life Sciences Takes Over Harlan Laboratories	67
Charles River Laboratories Acquires the CRO Services Division of Galapagos NV	67
NGCMA Grants GLP Compliance Certificate to Piramal Enterprises for its Research & Development Facility Located in Mumbai, India	67
Certara Launches Phoenix QT+ Cardiac Safety Assessment Tool	68
Thermo Fisher Acquires Life Technologies	68
Boston Scientific Acquires Bard Electrophysiology	69
Cellectricon Introduces New Module for Physiological Ion Channel Research	69
Novus Biologicals Acquires Imgenex	69
ChanTest Commences a Project, Funded by US FDA’s Centre for Tobacco Products (CTP)	70
Eurofins Panlabs Signs an Agreement with GE to Reinforce Drug Discovery Services	70
Molecular Devices to Supply Fluxion's IonFlux Automated Electrophysiology Systems and Associated Products Globally	71
ChanTest Releases the CardioChannelGram™ and SaVety Assessment	71
Aptuit Provides Electrophysiological Technology Platforms	72
BioFocus-ChanTest Agreement Widens Ion Channel Offerings of BioFocus	72
CreaCell Collaborates with Inserm u836	72
Elsevier Acquires Aureus Sciences	72
ChanTest’s Exclusive cGMP Testing Capability to be Beneficial to the Pharmaceutical and Biotech Industry	73
Sophion Launches the Qube - for Ion Channel Screening	73
Sophion and CreaCell Demonstrate Successful Performance of HEK-hKir2.1 cells on QPatch HT	74
RMIT Divests RDDT, the Toxicology Testing Business	74
Xention Presents Data from Successful Phase 1 trial for New Atrial Fibrillation Drug	74
Molecular Devices Unveils PatchXpress®Plus featured with Action Potential Measurement Functionality	75
Molecular Devices Attains US Patent for PPC	75
Abcam Launches New Range of Biochemicals	76
PerkinElmer Acquires Caliper Life Sciences	76
ChanTest and CDER Enter Research Collaboration Agreement	76
PhysioStim Launches hCAV1.2 assays GLP compliant and hKV4.3 assays (Ito)	77
Cytocentrics Launches CytoPatch™ Instrument	77
Schrödinger Sets Up Subsidiary in Japan	77
Evotec Achieves Milestone in Ion Channel Drug Discovery Collaboration with Ono Pharmaceutical	77
BMS Successfully Screens Advanced Ligand Gated Ion Channel Targets on SyncroPatch 96	77
flyion Launches f11™ Automated Patch Clamp Device	78
Abcam Acquires MitoSciences to Enhance its Immunoassay Portfolio	78
Scientifica Launches PatchVision	78
Xention and Ono Extend Drug Discovery Agreement by One Year	79
ChanTest Corporation and Molecular Devices Enter Cell Line Distribution Agreement	79
Innovative Application for IonFlux Platform of Fluxion Biosciences at the University of Michigan	79
Evotec Strengthens Its Compound Collection through Collaboration with ChemBridge	80
Xention and Grünenthal Enter Drug Discovery Collaboration in Ion Channel Research	80
Merck KGaA, Darmstadt Acquires Millipore and Forms New EMD Millipore Division	81
AGTC Acquires Technology from Icagen	81
Essen BioScience and Nycomed in Ion Channel Drug Discovery Collaboration	81
Essen Instruments and Origene Technologies Develop Ion Channel Cell Lines in Collaboration	82
Ricerca Biosciences LLC Buys MDS Pharma Services	82
Sophion Launches New, Simplified Version, Lower Throughput QPatch 8	82
Fluxion Biosciences Launches Fully Automated IonFlux Ion Channel Screening Platform	83
Cellectricon and Bio Focus DPI Advance High Throughput Ion Channel Drug Discovery	83
Icagen Initiates Study of Senicapoc in Exercise Induced Asthma	83
Sophion Introduces QPatch HTX	84
Automated, High-Throughput Patch Clamp Systems for Ion Channel Drug Discovery Launched by Fluxion Biosciences	84
Cellectricon and The Automation Partnership (TAP) in Collaboration for Next-Generation Ion Channel Screening System	84
Scottish Biomedical Enters into Agreement with Sophion Bioscience Pertaining to Ion Channel Cell Lines	85
Cellectricon and AstraZeneca Collaborate on New High-throughput Ion Channel Drug Discovery Technology	85
Apptec Laboratory Services acquired by WuXi Pharmatech, a Chinese Contract Research Organization	85
Novel Cardiac Model Developed by PhysioStim to Investigate Compound Assays	85
Neuromed Licenses AurSCOPE Ion Channel Database from Aureus Pharma	86
PhysioStim Deploys the Innovative Cardiac Pharmacological System	86
TetraQ Markets NeuroSolutions’ Products in Australasia	86
Charles River Laboratories Starts a New Pre-Clinical Services Facility in Quebec	87
Charles River Laboratories Completes Joint Venture with Shanghai BioExplorer	87
Aureus Pharma Forms Alliance with MDL® Isentris®	87
Millipore Provides First L-type Calcium Channel for Drug Testing	88
Aureus Pharma Grants License to Bayer CropScience for its AurSCOPE Knowledge Databases	88
Cerep Extends Pharmaco-Informatics Alliance with Pfizer	89
Cerep Renews Agreement for 2007 with Eli Lilly	89
Covance Acquires Orbitrap™ to Become the First CRO with Latest Mass Spectrometer Technology	90
AVIVA Biosciences Signs Distribution Agreement with Cosmo Bio Making Available its Electrophysiology Service in Japan	90
Covance Granted License for B-CLEAR® to Predict In-vivo Liver Disposition from In-vitro Assessments	90
Joint Venture between Strand and BioIT Alliance	91
Sophion Bioscience Introduces New Revolutionary QPatch HT	91
Origenis Becomes First Customer to Aureus Pharma’s AurWEB	92
Aureus Pharma Signs License Agreement with Xention for AurSCOPE Ion Channel Knowledge Database	92
Aureus Pharma Licenses Three Knowledge Databases to Siena Biotech SpA	92
Joint Venture between TetraQ and VivoPharma for New Pre-Clinical Drug Development Services	93
Serologicals Corporation Acquires Cytomyx	93
Aureus Pharma Launches AurWEB™ – The New Web Portal Solution for Knowledge Driven Drug Discovery	93
Strand and Pharmidex Jointly Develop New Silico Technology for CNS Drug Discovery	94
GlaxoSmithKline Granted License to Use Aureus Pharma’s Knowledge Databases	94
Strand Signs Agreement with ChemAxon to Develop New Software	95
Sophion Bioscience Initiates Joint Venture with Merck on QPatch HT	95
Sophion Enters Japanese Market	95
Bio-Rad Forms a Joint Venture with Aureus Pharma and Equbits LLC for In Silico Prediction of Biological Properties in Preclinical Drug Research	96
Aureus Pharma Extends Alliance with Sanofi-Aventis	96
Cyprotex Introduces New Innovative Screening Service	97
Sophion & Hydra Form One-of-a-Kind Reference Site for QPatch Automated Patch Clamp System.	97
Aureus Pharma Launches AurSCOPE® hERG Channel – The New Cardio toxicity Related Database	97
Molecular Devices Launches New IonWorks® Quattro™ System for Accelerated Ion Channel Screening	98
Technology Comparison	99
Patch Clamp Technology	99
Exhibit 16. Patch Clamp Technology - Estimated Market by Company in US$ Million for 2013	100
Exhibit 17. Patch Clamp Technology - Estimated Market Shares by Company for 2013	101
hERG Screening Assays	102
Exhibit 18. hERG Screening Assays - Estimated Market by Company in US$ Million for 2013	102
Exhibit 19. hERG Screening Assays - Estimated Market Shares by Company for 2013	103
hERG Screening Antibodies & Cell Lines	104
Exhibit 20. hERG Screening Antibodies and Cell Lines - Estimated Market by Company in US$ Million for 2013	104
Exhibit 21. hERG Screening Antibodies and Cell Lines - Estimated Market Shares by Company for 2013	105
hERG Screening - Market Outlook	106
Introduction	108
Channelopathies	108
Ion Channel Safety Pharmacology	108
Ion Channels as Pharmaceutical Targets	109
What makes ion channels attractive targets for drug development?	109
Patch-Clamp: The Gold Standard	109
Ion Channels	109
Basic Features of Ion Channel	110
Biological Role	110
Diseases Related to Ion Channels	110
Exhibit 22. Diseases Involving Ion Channel Function	111
Ion Channel Genes of the Human Genome	111
Technologies for Ion Channel Characterization	111
Towards Ion Channel Drug Discovery and Development	111
Physiological Significance of Ion Channels	111
Flux Assays in Ion Channel Screening	112
Types of Ion Channels	112
Voltage-Gated Ion Channel	112
Structure	112
Exhibit 23. List of Known Human Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Alpha Subunits	113
Exhibit 24. List of Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Beta Subunits	113
Mechanism	113
hERG Potassium Channel Activators and Blockers	114
hERG Channel Gating	114
hERG Channel Structure	115
Mechanisms of Action of Facilitators and Activators of hERG Current	115
Type 1 Activators	116
Type 2 Activators	116
Ligand-Gated Ion Channel	118
Introduction	118
Regulation	118
Clinical Relevance	119
hERG	119
Role of hERG Blockers in Cardiac Disorders	120
Characteristics and Clinical Applications of Cardiac hERG/I (Kr) Potassium Channel	120
Biophysical Properties and Molecular Determinants of Ziprasidone and its Role in Block Opening hERG	120
Cell Lines	121
Cardiomyocytes / Myocardiocytes	121
HEK 293 Cell Lines	121
History	121
Application of HEK 293 Cells	123
CHO or Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells	123
hERG T-REx™ CHO Cells	123
Role of Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium in Normal Functioning of Heart	124
Magnesium	124
Calcium	124
Potassium	124
Membrane Potential	125
Improper Membrane Potential	125
Description	125
Task in Human Well Being	126
Common Abnormalities and Ailments	126
Atrial Arrhythmias	127
Ventricular Arrhythmias:	127
Arrhythmias Arising Because of Abnormalities in the AV node, Purkinje fibers, or Bundle of His	127
Functioning of Heart	127
Cardiac Phase	128
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)	129
History	129
QRS Complex	129
T Wave	130
Abnormality in Potassium Ion Channel	130
Torsades de Pointes: a Cardiac Arrhythmia	130
Characteristics of TdP	130
Causes of TdP	131
Risk factors for TdP	131
Treatment	131
QT Interval	131
Short QT Syndrome	133
Long QT Syndrome	133
LQTS – The Causes	133
LQTS - Risks	134
LQTS – Signs and Symptoms	134
Screening and Diagnostic Procedures	135
Complications	136
LQTS - Treatment	136
Medical Devices and Surgical Procedures	137
Clinical Trials	138
Prevention	138
Self-Care	138
Coping Skills	139
Lifestyle Changes	139
LQTS – The Types	140
Inherited Long QT Syndrome	140
Exhibit 25. Drugs to be Avoided by Congenital QT Patients	140
Exhibit 26. Drugs (Withdrawn from Market) (Avoided by Congenital QT Patients)	144
Genetic Basis of LQTS	146
LQTS Associated Syndromes	147
Precautions	148
Acquired Long QT syndrome	148
Exhibit 27. Drugs which Block the hERG Channel	148
Co-Factors of Drug Induced LQTS	151
Symptoms for identification of drug induced LQTS	152
High Probability of Drug Induced LQTS	152
Symptoms:	152
Suspected Cases of Drug Induced LQTS	152
Symptoms:	152
Unlikely Case of Drug Induced LQTS	152
Symptoms:	152
Patch Clamp Technique	153
Methodology	153
Technique Configurations	153
On-Cell	153
Inside Out	153
Whole-Cell	153
Outside Out	153
Perforated whole-Cell	154
The Patch Clamp Technique Application	154
QPatch 16	154
QPatch HT	154
Q Patch Applications	154
QPATCH HT: Effective Application in Ion Channel Drug Discovery	154
Screening Station	155
Plates	155
The Q Plate Technique	156
Q Plate Prospects	156
Cell Preparation Unit	156
Liquid Handling System	156
Touch Screen	157
Data Acquisition	157
Q Patch Software	157
hERG Screening in Drug Discovery	158
Action from Drug Approving Authorities	159
Exhibit 28. Drugs (Discontinued in the Market) which Block the hERG Channel	159
In silico Modeling in hERG Channel Blockers	161
hERG Channel Archetypes and Pharmacophores	161
Testing In Silico for hERG K+ Channel Blockers	161
In Silico Categorization of hERG Channel Blockers: a Skill-Based Strategy	161
hERG Screening – Drugs Banned	162
Exhibit 29. List of Banned Drugs for Inducing LQTS	162
hERG and Obesity	162
Product Trends	163
The GLP hERG Channel Assay	163
Benefits Attributed to the Use of CDI Services	163
ICR 8000 – The latest Entrant in the Ion Channel Technology	163
There are vast applications of ICR 8000:	163
Applications of ICR 8000	163
Features and Parameters of ICR 8000	163
Uses:	164
ICR 12000	164
ICR 12000 – An advanced version of Ion Channel Technology considered ideal for hERG channel assays	164
Features and Parameters of ICR 12000	164
Rubidium Flux Assay	165
IonWorks® HT in hERG Channel Screening	165
Measurement of hERG Channel Currents Using IonWorks HT System	165
Sophion’s Q Patch:	166
QPatch 16	166
QPatch HT	166
Cell Lines in hERG Screening	166
Exhibit 30. List of hERG Screening Products/Technologies/Services by Company	166
Research Briefs	170
Genetic Studies, In Silico Prediction and Family Separation in long QT syndrome	170
A Functional Kv1.2 –hERG Chimaeric Channel Seen in Pichia Pastoris	170
Novel Technique to Test Drugs for Cystic Fibrosis and Epilepsy Treatment	170
Customized Cure Discovered For Dangerous Heart Rhythm Disorder	171
Sequence and Structure Specific Elements of hERG mRNA Regulate Channel Synthesis and Trafficking Efficacy	173
Ketamine Blocks hERG related Gene Potassium Channel	173
Controlling the hERG Channel by Rab4 by neural Precursor Cell-expressed developmentally down regulated Protein (4-2 (Nedd 4-2)	173
hERG Channel Inhibitors - Phospholipidosis	174
Cataloging Molecules for their hERG Liability	174
Restoration of hERG Channels in Micro Fabricated Silicon Chips	175
Class 3 Inhibition of hERG K(+) Channel By Caffeic Acid Phenyl Ethyl Ester (CAPE) and Curcumin	175
Formation of an Antibody Toolbox to Categorize hERG	175
Micro Culture on Cell Metabolism and Biochemistry	176
High Throughput Studies of Drug Binding Dynamics to hERG Improves Early Drug Safety Studies	176
Pharmacogenic Studies on hERG Potassium Channels	177
Biomimetic Membrane Platform having hERG Potassium Channel and its use in Drug Screening	177
Zebrafish and hERG	177
Discovery of New Drug for Long QT Syndrome Treatment	178
Study and Functional Categorization of New hERG R744P mutant linked with Hereditary Long QT Syndrome 2	179
SK Channels and Drug Designing	179
HCN Channels	179
The Constitution of hERG Subunit Decides Difference in Sensitivity to Drugs	180
PorB Ion Channel and Antibiotic Resistance	180
Calcium Channels and Human Diseases	181
Sodium Channels and Drug Testing	181
In Silico Predictions of hERG Channel Blockers in drug inhibition in drug discovery: from Ligand based and Target based methods to Systems Chemical Biology	182
Effect of Mutations on hERG Channels	182
Diagnostic test developed for 'Sudden Death Syndrome'	182
Calcium Channels in Pacemaker Cell	183
Basis of Sudden Cardiac Arrest Identified using Genetic Analysis	183
Identification of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds as Potent Inhibitors of hERG Potassium Channels	184
hERG channels and Sudden Cardiac Death	185
Recognizing Human Ether-a-go-go related Gene Modulators by three Screening Platforms in an Academic Drug –Discovery Setting	185
NMR Solution Structure of N-Terminal Domain of hERG	186
Fluconazole Inhibits hERG K+ Channel Directly Blocking and Disrupting Protein Trafficking	186
Prediction of the hERG Potassium Channel Inhibition Potential with use of Artificial Neural Networks	186
Analysis of hERG Current Assay Performance: From Preclinical Safety Studies to Clinical QT Prolongation	187
Characterization of Recombinant hERG K+ Channel Inhibition by the Active Metabolite of Amiodarone Desethyl-Amiodarone	188
Trafficking-Competent KCNQ1 Variably Influences the Function of hERG Long QT Alleles	188
Protocol-Dependence of hERG K channel inhibition at 37° C: Cisapride v/s Dofetilide	189
Block Effects of Capsaicin on hERG Potassium Currents is Improved by S6 Mutation at Y652	189
Role of Hsp 90 and ROS in Blocking Maturation and Trafficking of hERG K + Channel Protein during Hypoxia	189
Measurement of hERG Current IC50 using PatchXpress	190
Electrophysiologic Characterization of a Novel hERG Channel Activator	190
Effects of Sophocarpine and Sophoridine on hERG K+ channel – Comparison	191
Inhibition of hERG cardiac K+ current by antifungal drug miconazole	191
Concentrations of the Test Article in the hERG Assay: Differences in Solubility, Stability and Perfusion	192
Description About “hot spot” Refers to hERG Blockade Activity to α-Scorpion Toxins Affecting K+ Channels	192
FRET with Several Labeled hERG K+ Channels as a Reporter in In Vivo Coarse Architecture of the Cytoplasmic Domains	193
Recurrent Intrauterine Fetal Loss by the Absence of hERG: Clinical and Functional Characterization of a Homozygous Nonsense hERG Q1070X Mutation	193
Silencing of hERG Gene by shRNA Inhibits SH-SY5Y Cell Growth In Vitro and In Vivo	194
Exploring QSTR and Toxicophore of hERG K+ Channel Blockers Using GFA and HypoGen Techniques	194
Analogs of MK-499 are Differentially Affected by a Mutation in the S6 Domain of the hERG K+ Channel	195
Effect of Chemical Oxidation of hERG Channels	195
Blockade of hERG Channel by Drugs	195
Antipsychotic Drug Thioridazine Block hERG K + Channel: An Obligatory Function of the S6 Helix Residue F656	196
hERG Gene and ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels are the Targets for Adverse Drug Effects	196
Ketoconazole Inhibits hERG K+ Channel Depending on Channel Gating	197
Hypothesis Conducted to Better Understand the Binding Mode of hERG Channel Blockers	197
In Vitro Modulation of hERG Channels by Organochlorine Solvent Trichlormethane as Potential Explanation for Proarrhythmic Effects of Chloroform	198
Inhibition of Cardiac hERG Potassium Channels by Antidepressant Maprotiline	198
Erythromycin block of the hERG K+ channel and its accessibility option to F656 and Y652	199
Inhibition of hERG Channel by Ziprasidone	199
hERG Channel Inhibition and QT Interval Prolongation - An Evaluation of Emerging Trends	199
hERG-Lite®: Complete High-Throughput Screening Solution for Drug-Induced hERG Risk	200
Estimation of Potency of hERG Channel Blockers	200
Lidoflazine is a High Affinity Blocker of the hERG K+Channel	201
Comparison of Kinetic Properties of Quinidine and Dofetilide Block of hERG Channels	201
hERG Binding Specificity and Binding Site Structure: Evidence from a Fragment-based Evolutionary Computing SAR Study	202
Zebrafish Embryos Express an Orthologue of hERG	202
Phenytoin and Phenobarbital Inhibit Human hERG Potassium Channels	202
Characterization of Recombinant hERG K+ Channel Blockade using Class Ia Antiarrhythmic Drug Procainamide	203
Finding Solutions to the Problems with In Vitro Screening of Drugs for QT Interval Prolongation Applying hERG K+ Channels Expressed in Mammalian Cell Lines and Xenopus Oocytes	203
Fenamate-Induced Enhancement of Heterologously Expressed hERG Currents in Xenopus Oocytes	204
hERG K Channels as Pharmacological Targets	204

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