This report on hERG Screening presents an in depth analysis of hERG Screening market. The study emphasizes on both technology and product segments of hERG Screening in biotechnology and pharmaceutical application areas. The report provides essential information including market data, segmentation, market size, key trends, M&A, product developments, industry forecasts, corporate intelligence, and other relevant information. The report lists more than 120 companies that are engaged in hERG Screening services and/or production of hERG screening tools/instruments. A global perspective is presented along with regional analysis covering North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World. Compilation of Worldwide Patents and Research related to hERG Screening is also provided. The market is analyzed in US Dollars and includes 35 exclusive graphically illustrated exhibits.
Table of Content I. SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY 1 II. REPORT SYNOPSIS 3 Introduction 3 Ion Channels 3 History 4 Types of Ion Channels 4 Voltage-Gated Ion Channel 4 Ligand-Gated Ion Channel 4 Normal Functioning of Heart 6 QT Interval 7 Short QT Syndrome 7 Long QT Syndrome 7 Types of LQTS 8 Genetical LQTS 8 Acquired LQTS 8 Signs and Symptoms 9 Drug Induced LQTS 10 Causes 10 Long QT Syndrome and Torsade de pointes 11 Recording the Electrical Activity of Heart Beat 11 Diagnosis of LQTS 12 Treatment 13 PQRST Wave 13 Cell Lines 14 Cardiomyocytes 14 HEK 293 Cell Lines 14 CHO or Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells 14 hERG and Drug Discovery 15 hERG Screening - Global Market Analysis 16 Exhibit 1. hERG Screening – Global Value Market Estimations & Predictions (2005 - 2020) in US$ Million 16 Exhibit 2. List of Major Global Companies 17 III. MARKET DYNAMICS 18 Market Overview 18 Global hERG Screening Market 19 Exhibit 3. hERG Screening – Global Value Market Estimations & Predictions (2005 - 2020) by Geographic Region for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World in US$ Million 19 Exhibit 4. hERG Screening – Global Value Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Geographic Region for North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World 20 The Impact of hERG 20 North American hERG Screening Market 21 Exhibit 5. hERG Screening – North American Value Market Estimations & Predictions (2005 - 2020) in by Country for United States and Canada US$ Million 21 Exhibit 6. hERG Screening – North American Value Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Country for United States and Canada 22 United States hERG Screening Market 22 Canadian hERG Screening Market 22 Canadian hERG Screening market was estimated at US$ 129.05 million in 2012. The market is projected to reach around US$ 487.4 million by 2020, increasing at CAGR of 21.97 %, during the analysis period (2005-2020). 22 Exhibit 7. List of Major North American hERG Screening Companies 23 European hERG Screening Market 24 Exhibit 8. hERG Screening – European Value Market Estimations & Predictions (2005 - 2020) by Country for United Kingdom, Germany, France, Switzerland, Russia and Rest of Europe in US$ Million 24 Exhibit 9. hERG Screening – European Value Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Country for United Kingdom, Germany, France, Switzerland, Russia and Rest of Europe 25 UK hERG Screening Market 25 German hERG Screening Market 25 French HERG Screening Market 25 Swiss hERG Screening Market 25 Russian hERG Screening Market 26 Exhibit 10. List of Major European hERG Screening Companies 26 Asia-Pacific hERG Screening Market 27 Exhibit 11. hERG Screening – Asia-Pacific Value Market Estimations & Predictions (2005 - 2020) by Country for Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific in US$ Million 27 Exhibit 12. hERG Screening – Asia-Pacific Value Market Shares (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Country for Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and Rest of Asia-Pacific 28 Australian hERG Screening Market 28 Chinese hERG Screening Market 28 Indian hERG Screening Market 28 Japanese hERG Screening Market 28 South Korean hERG Screening Market 29 Exhibit 13. List of Major Asia-Pacific hERG Screening Companies 29 Rest of World hERG Screening Market 30 Exhibit 14. hERG Screening – Rest of World Value Market Estimations & Predictions (2005 - 2020) by Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries in US$ Million 30 Exhibit 15. hERG Screening – Rest of World Value Market Share (2010, 2015 & 2020) by Israel, South Africa, Brazil and Other Countries 31 Israeli hERG Screening Market 31 South African hERG Screening Market 31 Brazilian hERG Screening Market 31 Company Profiles - Major Players in hERG Screening Market 32 Abcam PLC (UK) 32 Abnova Corporation (Taiwan) 33 Aurora Biomed, Inc. (Canada) 34 AVIVA BioSciences Corporation (USA) 36 B’SYS GmbH (Switzerland) 37 Cellular Dynamics International, Inc. (USA) 39 Cerep SA (France) 40 ChanTest Corporation (USA) 41 Charles River Laboratories International, Inc. (USA) 42 Covance, Inc. (USA) 43 CreaCell (France) 43 Cyprotex plc (UK) 44 Cytocentric Biosciences GmbH (Germany) 44 Dundalk Institute of Technology (Ireland) 45 EMD Millipore Corporation (USA) 47 flyion GmbH (Germany) 48 GE Healthcare (UK) 49 Life Technologies Corporation (USA) 50 LifeSpan BioSciences, Inc. (USA) 52 Molecular Devices, Inc. (USA) 53 Nanion Technologies GmbH (Germany) 54 NeuroSolutions Ltd. (UK) 55 Novus Biologicals LLC (USA) 56 PerkinElmer, Inc. (USA) 58 Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. (USA) 59 Schrodinger LLC (USA) 59 Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC (USA) 60 Sophion Bioscience A/S (Denmark) 61 TetraQ (Australia) 62 Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. (USA) 62 Tocris Bioscience (USA) 63 UW-Madison College of Engineering (The) (USA) 64 Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) (USA) 65 WuXi AppTec (China) 66 Major Activities in hERG Screening Market 67 Huntingdon Life Sciences Takes Over Harlan Laboratories 67 Charles River Laboratories Acquires the CRO Services Division of Galapagos NV 67 NGCMA Grants GLP Compliance Certificate to Piramal Enterprises for its Research & Development Facility Located in Mumbai, India 67 Certara Launches Phoenix QT+ Cardiac Safety Assessment Tool 68 Thermo Fisher Acquires Life Technologies 68 Boston Scientific Acquires Bard Electrophysiology 69 Cellectricon Introduces New Module for Physiological Ion Channel Research 69 Novus Biologicals Acquires Imgenex 69 ChanTest Commences a Project, Funded by US FDA’s Centre for Tobacco Products (CTP) 70 Eurofins Panlabs Signs an Agreement with GE to Reinforce Drug Discovery Services 70 Molecular Devices to Supply Fluxion's IonFlux Automated Electrophysiology Systems and Associated Products Globally 71 ChanTest Releases the CardioChannelGram™ and SaVety Assessment 71 Aptuit Provides Electrophysiological Technology Platforms 72 BioFocus-ChanTest Agreement Widens Ion Channel Offerings of BioFocus 72 CreaCell Collaborates with Inserm u836 72 Elsevier Acquires Aureus Sciences 72 ChanTest’s Exclusive cGMP Testing Capability to be Beneficial to the Pharmaceutical and Biotech Industry 73 Sophion Launches the Qube - for Ion Channel Screening 73 Sophion and CreaCell Demonstrate Successful Performance of HEK-hKir2.1 cells on QPatch HT 74 RMIT Divests RDDT, the Toxicology Testing Business 74 Xention Presents Data from Successful Phase 1 trial for New Atrial Fibrillation Drug 74 Molecular Devices Unveils PatchXpress®Plus featured with Action Potential Measurement Functionality 75 Molecular Devices Attains US Patent for PPC 75 Abcam Launches New Range of Biochemicals 76 PerkinElmer Acquires Caliper Life Sciences 76 ChanTest and CDER Enter Research Collaboration Agreement 76 PhysioStim Launches hCAV1.2 assays GLP compliant and hKV4.3 assays (Ito) 77 Cytocentrics Launches CytoPatch™ Instrument 77 Schrödinger Sets Up Subsidiary in Japan 77 Evotec Achieves Milestone in Ion Channel Drug Discovery Collaboration with Ono Pharmaceutical 77 BMS Successfully Screens Advanced Ligand Gated Ion Channel Targets on SyncroPatch 96 77 flyion Launches f11™ Automated Patch Clamp Device 78 Abcam Acquires MitoSciences to Enhance its Immunoassay Portfolio 78 Scientifica Launches PatchVision 78 Xention and Ono Extend Drug Discovery Agreement by One Year 79 ChanTest Corporation and Molecular Devices Enter Cell Line Distribution Agreement 79 Innovative Application for IonFlux Platform of Fluxion Biosciences at the University of Michigan 79 Evotec Strengthens Its Compound Collection through Collaboration with ChemBridge 80 Xention and Grünenthal Enter Drug Discovery Collaboration in Ion Channel Research 80 Merck KGaA, Darmstadt Acquires Millipore and Forms New EMD Millipore Division 81 AGTC Acquires Technology from Icagen 81 Essen BioScience and Nycomed in Ion Channel Drug Discovery Collaboration 81 Essen Instruments and Origene Technologies Develop Ion Channel Cell Lines in Collaboration 82 Ricerca Biosciences LLC Buys MDS Pharma Services 82 Sophion Launches New, Simplified Version, Lower Throughput QPatch 8 82 Fluxion Biosciences Launches Fully Automated IonFlux Ion Channel Screening Platform 83 Cellectricon and Bio Focus DPI Advance High Throughput Ion Channel Drug Discovery 83 Icagen Initiates Study of Senicapoc in Exercise Induced Asthma 83 Sophion Introduces QPatch HTX 84 Automated, High-Throughput Patch Clamp Systems for Ion Channel Drug Discovery Launched by Fluxion Biosciences 84 Cellectricon and The Automation Partnership (TAP) in Collaboration for Next-Generation Ion Channel Screening System 84 Scottish Biomedical Enters into Agreement with Sophion Bioscience Pertaining to Ion Channel Cell Lines 85 Cellectricon and AstraZeneca Collaborate on New High-throughput Ion Channel Drug Discovery Technology 85 Apptec Laboratory Services acquired by WuXi Pharmatech, a Chinese Contract Research Organization 85 Novel Cardiac Model Developed by PhysioStim to Investigate Compound Assays 85 Neuromed Licenses AurSCOPE Ion Channel Database from Aureus Pharma 86 PhysioStim Deploys the Innovative Cardiac Pharmacological System 86 TetraQ Markets NeuroSolutions’ Products in Australasia 86 Charles River Laboratories Starts a New Pre-Clinical Services Facility in Quebec 87 Charles River Laboratories Completes Joint Venture with Shanghai BioExplorer 87 Aureus Pharma Forms Alliance with MDL® Isentris® 87 Millipore Provides First L-type Calcium Channel for Drug Testing 88 Aureus Pharma Grants License to Bayer CropScience for its AurSCOPE Knowledge Databases 88 Cerep Extends Pharmaco-Informatics Alliance with Pfizer 89 Cerep Renews Agreement for 2007 with Eli Lilly 89 Covance Acquires Orbitrap™ to Become the First CRO with Latest Mass Spectrometer Technology 90 AVIVA Biosciences Signs Distribution Agreement with Cosmo Bio Making Available its Electrophysiology Service in Japan 90 Covance Granted License for B-CLEAR® to Predict In-vivo Liver Disposition from In-vitro Assessments 90 Joint Venture between Strand and BioIT Alliance 91 Sophion Bioscience Introduces New Revolutionary QPatch HT 91 Origenis Becomes First Customer to Aureus Pharma’s AurWEB 92 Aureus Pharma Signs License Agreement with Xention for AurSCOPE Ion Channel Knowledge Database 92 Aureus Pharma Licenses Three Knowledge Databases to Siena Biotech SpA 92 Joint Venture between TetraQ and VivoPharma for New Pre-Clinical Drug Development Services 93 Serologicals Corporation Acquires Cytomyx 93 Aureus Pharma Launches AurWEB™ – The New Web Portal Solution for Knowledge Driven Drug Discovery 93 Strand and Pharmidex Jointly Develop New Silico Technology for CNS Drug Discovery 94 GlaxoSmithKline Granted License to Use Aureus Pharma’s Knowledge Databases 94 Strand Signs Agreement with ChemAxon to Develop New Software 95 Sophion Bioscience Initiates Joint Venture with Merck on QPatch HT 95 Sophion Enters Japanese Market 95 Bio-Rad Forms a Joint Venture with Aureus Pharma and Equbits LLC for In Silico Prediction of Biological Properties in Preclinical Drug Research 96 Aureus Pharma Extends Alliance with Sanofi-Aventis 96 Cyprotex Introduces New Innovative Screening Service 97 Sophion & Hydra Form One-of-a-Kind Reference Site for QPatch Automated Patch Clamp System. 97 Aureus Pharma Launches AurSCOPE® hERG Channel – The New Cardio toxicity Related Database 97 Molecular Devices Launches New IonWorks® Quattro™ System for Accelerated Ion Channel Screening 98 Technology Comparison 99 Patch Clamp Technology 99 Exhibit 16. Patch Clamp Technology - Estimated Market by Company in US$ Million for 2013 100 Exhibit 17. Patch Clamp Technology - Estimated Market Shares by Company for 2013 101 hERG Screening Assays 102 Exhibit 18. hERG Screening Assays - Estimated Market by Company in US$ Million for 2013 102 Exhibit 19. hERG Screening Assays - Estimated Market Shares by Company for 2013 103 hERG Screening Antibodies & Cell Lines 104 Exhibit 20. hERG Screening Antibodies and Cell Lines - Estimated Market by Company in US$ Million for 2013 104 Exhibit 21. hERG Screening Antibodies and Cell Lines - Estimated Market Shares by Company for 2013 105 hERG Screening - Market Outlook 106 IV. PRODUCT/TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH 108 Introduction 108 Channelopathies 108 Ion Channel Safety Pharmacology 108 Ion Channels as Pharmaceutical Targets 109 What makes ion channels attractive targets for drug development? 109 Patch-Clamp: The Gold Standard 109 Ion Channels 109 Basic Features of Ion Channel 110 Biological Role 110 Diseases Related to Ion Channels 110 Exhibit 22. Diseases Involving Ion Channel Function 111 Ion Channel Genes of the Human Genome 111 Technologies for Ion Channel Characterization 111 Towards Ion Channel Drug Discovery and Development 111 Physiological Significance of Ion Channels 111 Flux Assays in Ion Channel Screening 112 Types of Ion Channels 112 Voltage-Gated Ion Channel 112 Structure 112 Exhibit 23. List of Known Human Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Alpha Subunits 113 Exhibit 24. List of Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Beta Subunits 113 Mechanism 113 hERG Potassium Channel Activators and Blockers 114 hERG Channel Gating 114 hERG Channel Structure 115 Mechanisms of Action of Facilitators and Activators of hERG Current 115 Type 1 Activators 116 Type 2 Activators 116 Ligand-Gated Ion Channel 118 Introduction 118 Regulation 118 Clinical Relevance 119 hERG 119 Role of hERG Blockers in Cardiac Disorders 120 Characteristics and Clinical Applications of Cardiac hERG/I (Kr) Potassium Channel 120 Biophysical Properties and Molecular Determinants of Ziprasidone and its Role in Block Opening hERG 120 Cell Lines 121 Cardiomyocytes / Myocardiocytes 121 HEK 293 Cell Lines 121 History 121 Application of HEK 293 Cells 123 CHO or Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells 123 hERG T-REx™ CHO Cells 123 Role of Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium in Normal Functioning of Heart 124 Magnesium 124 Calcium 124 Potassium 124 Membrane Potential 125 Improper Membrane Potential 125 Description 125 Task in Human Well Being 126 Common Abnormalities and Ailments 126 Atrial Arrhythmias 127 Ventricular Arrhythmias: 127 Arrhythmias Arising Because of Abnormalities in the AV node, Purkinje fibers, or Bundle of His 127 Functioning of Heart 127 Cardiac Phase 128 Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) 129 History 129 QRS Complex 129 T Wave 130 Abnormality in Potassium Ion Channel 130 Torsades de Pointes: a Cardiac Arrhythmia 130 Characteristics of TdP 130 Causes of TdP 131 Risk factors for TdP 131 Treatment 131 QT Interval 131 Short QT Syndrome 133 Long QT Syndrome 133 LQTS – The Causes 133 LQTS - Risks 134 LQTS – Signs and Symptoms 134 Screening and Diagnostic Procedures 135 Complications 136 LQTS - Treatment 136 Medical Devices and Surgical Procedures 137 Clinical Trials 138 Prevention 138 Self-Care 138 Coping Skills 139 Lifestyle Changes 139 LQTS – The Types 140 Inherited Long QT Syndrome 140 Exhibit 25. Drugs to be Avoided by Congenital QT Patients 140 Exhibit 26. Drugs (Withdrawn from Market) (Avoided by Congenital QT Patients) 144 Genetic Basis of LQTS 146 LQTS Associated Syndromes 147 Precautions 148 Acquired Long QT syndrome 148 Exhibit 27. Drugs which Block the hERG Channel 148 Co-Factors of Drug Induced LQTS 151 Symptoms for identification of drug induced LQTS 152 High Probability of Drug Induced LQTS 152 Symptoms: 152 Suspected Cases of Drug Induced LQTS 152 Symptoms: 152 Unlikely Case of Drug Induced LQTS 152 Symptoms: 152 Patch Clamp Technique 153 Methodology 153 Technique Configurations 153 On-Cell 153 Inside Out 153 Whole-Cell 153 Outside Out 153 Perforated whole-Cell 154 The Patch Clamp Technique Application 154 QPatch 16 154 QPatch HT 154 Q Patch Applications 154 QPATCH HT: Effective Application in Ion Channel Drug Discovery 154 Screening Station 155 Plates 155 The Q Plate Technique 156 Q Plate Prospects 156 Cell Preparation Unit 156 Liquid Handling System 156 Touch Screen 157 Data Acquisition 157 Q Patch Software 157 hERG Screening in Drug Discovery 158 Action from Drug Approving Authorities 159 Exhibit 28. Drugs (Discontinued in the Market) which Block the hERG Channel 159 In silico Modeling in hERG Channel Blockers 161 hERG Channel Archetypes and Pharmacophores 161 Testing In Silico for hERG K+ Channel Blockers 161 In Silico Categorization of hERG Channel Blockers: a Skill-Based Strategy 161 hERG Screening – Drugs Banned 162 Exhibit 29. List of Banned Drugs for Inducing LQTS 162 hERG and Obesity 162 Product Trends 163 The GLP hERG Channel Assay 163 Benefits Attributed to the Use of CDI Services 163 ICR 8000 – The latest Entrant in the Ion Channel Technology 163 There are vast applications of ICR 8000: 163 Applications of ICR 8000 163 Features and Parameters of ICR 8000 163 Uses: 164 ICR 12000 164 ICR 12000 – An advanced version of Ion Channel Technology considered ideal for hERG channel assays 164 Features and Parameters of ICR 12000 164 Rubidium Flux Assay 165 IonWorks® HT in hERG Channel Screening 165 Measurement of hERG Channel Currents Using IonWorks HT System 165 Sophion’s Q Patch: 166 QPatch 16 166 QPatch HT 166 Cell Lines in hERG Screening 166 Exhibit 30. List of hERG Screening Products/Technologies/Services by Company 166 Research Briefs 170 Genetic Studies, In Silico Prediction and Family Separation in long QT syndrome 170 A Functional Kv1.2 –hERG Chimaeric Channel Seen in Pichia Pastoris 170 Novel Technique to Test Drugs for Cystic Fibrosis and Epilepsy Treatment 170 Customized Cure Discovered For Dangerous Heart Rhythm Disorder 171 Sequence and Structure Specific Elements of hERG mRNA Regulate Channel Synthesis and Trafficking Efficacy 173 Ketamine Blocks hERG related Gene Potassium Channel 173 Controlling the hERG Channel by Rab4 by neural Precursor Cell-expressed developmentally down regulated Protein (4-2 (Nedd 4-2) 173 hERG Channel Inhibitors - Phospholipidosis 174 Cataloging Molecules for their hERG Liability 174 Restoration of hERG Channels in Micro Fabricated Silicon Chips 175 Class 3 Inhibition of hERG K(+) Channel By Caffeic Acid Phenyl Ethyl Ester (CAPE) and Curcumin 175 Formation of an Antibody Toolbox to Categorize hERG 175 Micro Culture on Cell Metabolism and Biochemistry 176 High Throughput Studies of Drug Binding Dynamics to hERG Improves Early Drug Safety Studies 176 Pharmacogenic Studies on hERG Potassium Channels 177 Biomimetic Membrane Platform having hERG Potassium Channel and its use in Drug Screening 177 Zebrafish and hERG 177 Discovery of New Drug for Long QT Syndrome Treatment 178 Study and Functional Categorization of New hERG R744P mutant linked with Hereditary Long QT Syndrome 2 179 SK Channels and Drug Designing 179 HCN Channels 179 The Constitution of hERG Subunit Decides Difference in Sensitivity to Drugs 180 PorB Ion Channel and Antibiotic Resistance 180 Calcium Channels and Human Diseases 181 Sodium Channels and Drug Testing 181 In Silico Predictions of hERG Channel Blockers in drug inhibition in drug discovery: from Ligand based and Target based methods to Systems Chemical Biology 182 Effect of Mutations on hERG Channels 182 Diagnostic test developed for 'Sudden Death Syndrome' 182 Calcium Channels in Pacemaker Cell 183 Basis of Sudden Cardiac Arrest Identified using Genetic Analysis 183 Identification of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds as Potent Inhibitors of hERG Potassium Channels 184 hERG channels and Sudden Cardiac Death 185 Recognizing Human Ether-a-go-go related Gene Modulators by three Screening Platforms in an Academic Drug –Discovery Setting 185 NMR Solution Structure of N-Terminal Domain of hERG 186 Fluconazole Inhibits hERG K+ Channel Directly Blocking and Disrupting Protein Trafficking 186 Prediction of the hERG Potassium Channel Inhibition Potential with use of Artificial Neural Networks 186 Analysis of hERG Current Assay Performance: From Preclinical Safety Studies to Clinical QT Prolongation 187 Characterization of Recombinant hERG K+ Channel Inhibition by the Active Metabolite of Amiodarone Desethyl-Amiodarone 188 Trafficking-Competent KCNQ1 Variably Influences the Function of hERG Long QT Alleles 188 Protocol-Dependence of hERG K channel inhibition at 37° C: Cisapride v/s Dofetilide 189 Block Effects of Capsaicin on hERG Potassium Currents is Improved by S6 Mutation at Y652 189 Role of Hsp 90 and ROS in Blocking Maturation and Trafficking of hERG K + Channel Protein during Hypoxia 189 Measurement of hERG Current IC50 using PatchXpress 190 Electrophysiologic Characterization of a Novel hERG Channel Activator 190 Effects of Sophocarpine and Sophoridine on hERG K+ channel – Comparison 191 Inhibition of hERG cardiac K+ current by antifungal drug miconazole 191 Concentrations of the Test Article in the hERG Assay: Differences in Solubility, Stability and Perfusion 192 Description About “hot spot” Refers to hERG Blockade Activity to α-Scorpion Toxins Affecting K+ Channels 192 FRET with Several Labeled hERG K+ Channels as a Reporter in In Vivo Coarse Architecture of the Cytoplasmic Domains 193 Recurrent Intrauterine Fetal Loss by the Absence of hERG: Clinical and Functional Characterization of a Homozygous Nonsense hERG Q1070X Mutation 193 Silencing of hERG Gene by shRNA Inhibits SH-SY5Y Cell Growth In Vitro and In Vivo 194 Exploring QSTR and Toxicophore of hERG K+ Channel Blockers Using GFA and HypoGen Techniques 194 Analogs of MK-499 are Differentially Affected by a Mutation in the S6 Domain of the hERG K+ Channel 195 Effect of Chemical Oxidation of hERG Channels 195 Blockade of hERG Channel by Drugs 195 Antipsychotic Drug Thioridazine Block hERG K + Channel: An Obligatory Function of the S6 Helix Residue F656 196 hERG Gene and ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels are the Targets for Adverse Drug Effects 196 Ketoconazole Inhibits hERG K+ Channel Depending on Channel Gating 197 Hypothesis Conducted to Better Understand the Binding Mode of hERG Channel Blockers 197 In Vitro Modulation of hERG Channels by Organochlorine Solvent Trichlormethane as Potential Explanation for Proarrhythmic Effects of Chloroform 198 Inhibition of Cardiac hERG Potassium Channels by Antidepressant Maprotiline 198 Erythromycin block of the hERG K+ channel and its accessibility option to F656 and Y652 199 Inhibition of hERG Channel by Ziprasidone 199 hERG Channel Inhibition and QT Interval Prolongation - An Evaluation of Emerging Trends 199 hERG-Lite®: Complete High-Throughput Screening Solution for Drug-Induced hERG Risk 200 Estimation of Potency of hERG Channel Blockers 200 Lidoflazine is a High Affinity Blocker of the hERG K+Channel 201 Comparison of Kinetic Properties of Quinidine and Dofetilide Block of hERG Channels 201 hERG Binding Specificity and Binding Site Structure: Evidence from a Fragment-based Evolutionary Computing SAR Study 202 Zebrafish Embryos Express an Orthologue of hERG 202 Phenytoin and Phenobarbital Inhibit Human hERG Potassium Channels 202 Characterization of Recombinant hERG K+ Channel Blockade using Class Ia Antiarrhythmic Drug Procainamide 203 Finding Solutions to the Problems with In Vitro Screening of Drugs for QT Interval Prolongation Applying hERG K+ Channels Expressed in Mammalian Cell Lines and Xenopus Oocytes 203 Fenamate-Induced Enhancement of Heterologously Expressed hERG Currents in Xenopus Oocytes 204 hERG K Channels as Pharmacological Targets 204 V. CORPORATE DIRECTORY 205 VI. PATENTS INFORMATION 218
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